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Communication

How Long Does Adaption Last for? An Update on the Psychological Impact of the Confinement in Portugal

1
Psychological Neuroscience Lab, CIPsi, School of Psychology, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
2
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
3
ICVS/3B’s, PT Government Associate Laboratory, 4710-057 Guimarães, Braga, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042243
Received: 18 January 2022 / Revised: 12 February 2022 / Accepted: 14 February 2022 / Published: 16 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Emotional Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic)
During the first COVID-19 related confinement in Portugal, there was a decrease in the levels of psychological symptoms measured by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (March to April 2020). Upon experiencing a new period of restraints in 2021, the psychological impact of this sample was assessed again (N = 322, two more time points). It was expected that the psychological symptoms evidenced in February 2021 would be at similar levels to those found in April 2020, leading to a transfer of adaptation. Contrary to our hypothesis, in the second confinement in Portugal there were higher levels of depression and stress symptoms than at the beginning of the pandemic. On the other hand, the maximum level of anxiety was observed in March 2020. It seems that our perception of the threats in 2021 was not the same as at the onset of COVID-19, or that knowledge was not disseminated to the general population to increase their mental health literacy and help them cope with the imposed challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; mental health; confinement; adaptation; DASS-21; Portugal COVID-19; mental health; confinement; adaptation; DASS-21; Portugal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Costa, A.D.; Fernandes, A.; Ferreira, S.; Couto, B.; Machado-Sousa, M.; Moreira, P.; Morgado, P.; Picó-Pérez, M. How Long Does Adaption Last for? An Update on the Psychological Impact of the Confinement in Portugal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2243. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042243

AMA Style

Costa AD, Fernandes A, Ferreira S, Couto B, Machado-Sousa M, Moreira P, Morgado P, Picó-Pérez M. How Long Does Adaption Last for? An Update on the Psychological Impact of the Confinement in Portugal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(4):2243. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042243

Chicago/Turabian Style

Costa, Ana Daniela, Afonso Fernandes, Sónia Ferreira, Beatriz Couto, Mafalda Machado-Sousa, Pedro Moreira, Pedro Morgado, and Maria Picó-Pérez. 2022. "How Long Does Adaption Last for? An Update on the Psychological Impact of the Confinement in Portugal" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 4: 2243. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042243

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