Background: The association between the biomarkers of environmental exposure, oxidative stress, and health-related behaviors in community residents living in an endemic viral hepatitis area and near petrochemical industrial complexes remains unclear. From a health promotion perspective, healthcare providers must know what to do for residents concerned about their health and living environment, especially for individual-level and modifiable risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to explore the factors associated with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2018 and February 2019 in western coastal Yunlin County, Taiwan. All participants lived within a 10 km radius of a large petrochemical complex and did not work in the factory. This study was conducted with the local hospital through annual community health screening. Biological samples were collected and biomarkers determined and quantified in the central laboratory of the collaborating hospital. Results: A total of 6335 adult residents completed the study. The mean age was 47.7 (SD = 16) years. Out of the total population, 56.4% were female, 30.1% had metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 16.8% and 14.3% had hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) positivity, respectively. The median 1-OHP and MDA level was 0.11 and 0.9 μg/g creatinine with an interquartile range of 0.07–0.18, and 0.4–1.5, respectively. The MDA levels correlated with specific diseases. The multivariable ordinal logistic regression model revealed that female sex, smoking, betel nut use, HBsAg, and anti-HCV positivity were associated with higher 1-OHP levels. In men, MetS was associated with higher 1-OHP levels and regular exercise with lower 1-OHP levels. High MDA levels were associated with smoking, betel nut users, HBsAg, and anti-HCV positivity. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of initiating individualized health promotion programs for residents near petrochemical factories, especially for adults with substance-use and cardiometabolic risk factors. Furthermore, it is crucial to provide further treatment to patients with viral hepatitis.
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