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Article

Indoor Air Pollution Increases the Risk of Lung Cancer

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Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
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Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan
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Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
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Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
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Green Energy & Environmental Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan
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Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
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Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carla Viegas and Elisabete Carolino
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031164
Received: 17 November 2021 / Revised: 7 January 2022 / Accepted: 14 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
(1) Background: Cooking and burning incense are important sources of indoor air pollutants. No studies have provided biological evidence of air pollutants in the lungs to support this association. Analysis of pleural fluid may be used to measure the internal exposure dose of air pollutants in the lung. The objective of this study was to provide biological evidence of indoor air pollutants and estimate their risk of lung cancer. (2) Methods: We analyzed 14 common air pollutants in the pleural fluid of 39 cases of lung adenocarcinoma and 40 nonmalignant controls by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (3) Results: When we excluded the current smokers and adjusted for age, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 2.22 (95% confidence interval CI = 0.77–6.44) for habitual cooking at home and 3.05 (95% CI = 1.06–8.84) for indoor incense burning. In females, the adjusted ORs were 5.39 (95% CI = 1.11–26.20) for habitual cooking at home and 6.01 (95% CI = 1.14–31.66) for indoor incense burning. In pleural fluid, the most important exposure biomarkers for lung cancer were naphthalene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene. (4) Conclusions: Habitual cooking and indoor incense burning increased the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor air pollutants; bioaccumulation; combustion sources; pleural fluid; exposure assessment; machine learning indoor air pollutants; bioaccumulation; combustion sources; pleural fluid; exposure assessment; machine learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, K.-C.; Tsai, S.-W.; Shie, R.-H.; Zeng, C.; Yang, H.-Y. Indoor Air Pollution Increases the Risk of Lung Cancer. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031164

AMA Style

Chen K-C, Tsai S-W, Shie R-H, Zeng C, Yang H-Y. Indoor Air Pollution Increases the Risk of Lung Cancer. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031164

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Ke-Cheng, Shih-Wei Tsai, Ruei-Hao Shie, Chian Zeng, and Hsiao-Yu Yang. 2022. "Indoor Air Pollution Increases the Risk of Lung Cancer" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031164

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