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Article

Exploring the Associated Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Healthcare Shift Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Nilai 71800, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam 42300, Malaysia
3
Institute of Medical Science Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159420
Received: 7 July 2022 / Revised: 26 July 2022 / Accepted: 26 July 2022 / Published: 1 August 2022
Background: The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has had a tremendous impact on healthcare frontliners. This study sought to assess healthcare shift workers’ depression, anxiety, and stress and its associated factors. Methods: The sampling frame includes healthcare shift workers directly managing COVID-19 cases around Klang Valley, Malaysia. The participants’ mental health status was assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The associated factors specified in this study include sleep quality, physical activities, and eating habits. Pearson’s χ2 and simple and multivariable binary logistic regression models were constructed following the Hosmer–Lemeshow approach to determine the potential associated factors. Results: A total of 413 participants were recruited. Overall, 40.7% of participants had one or more symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress. Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with all mental health outcomes of depression, anxiety, and stress. Inactivity was found to be strongly associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. At the same time, eating habits were strongly associated with anxiety and stress. Conclusions: Sleep quality, inactivity, and eating habits that were found to be associated with the mental health status of healthcare shift workers are modifiable factors that must be addressed to curb mental health issues among this group of workers. View Full-Text
Keywords: shift workers; psychosocial; physical activity; eating habits; COVID-19 shift workers; psychosocial; physical activity; eating habits; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Juliana, N.; Mohd Azmi, N.A.S.; Effendy, N.; Mohd Fahmi Teng, N.I.; Azmani, S.; Baharom, N.; Mohamad Yusuff, A.S.; Abu, I.F. Exploring the Associated Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Healthcare Shift Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 9420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159420

AMA Style

Juliana N, Mohd Azmi NAS, Effendy N, Mohd Fahmi Teng NI, Azmani S, Baharom N, Mohamad Yusuff AS, Abu IF. Exploring the Associated Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Healthcare Shift Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(15):9420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159420

Chicago/Turabian Style

Juliana, Norsham, Nor Amira Syahira Mohd Azmi, Nadia Effendy, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Sahar Azmani, Nizam Baharom, Aza Sherin Mohamad Yusuff, and Izuddin Fahmy Abu. 2022. "Exploring the Associated Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Healthcare Shift Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 15: 9420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159420

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