WALES 2021 Active Healthy Kids (AHK) Report Card: The Fourth Pandemic of Childhood Inactivity
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Overall Physical Activity Levels: F
3.2. Organised Sport and Physical Activity: C
3.3. Active Play: C+
3.4. Active Transportation: C−
3.5. Sedentary Behaviours: F
3.6. Physical Fitness: C−
3.7. Family and Peers: D+
3.8. School: B−
3.9. Community and Environment: C
3.10. Government: C
3.11. Physical Literacy: C−
4.1. Research Gaps
4.2. Recommendations to Improve the Grades
4.3. Future Directions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Data Source||Location||AHK-Wales Member Responsible|
|School Health Research Network Health and Wellbeing Survey||www.shrn.org.uk||Kelly Morgan|
|School Health Research Network School Environment Questionnaire||www.shrn.org.uk||Kelly Morgan|
|Health and Attainment of Pupils in a Primary Education Network||www.happen-wales.co.uk||Emily Marchant/Michaela James|
|School Sport Participation Survey||www.sport.wales||Tim Evans|
|School Sport Provision Survey||www.sport.wales||Tim Evans|
|Further Education Sport & Active Lifestyles Survey||www.sport.wales||Tim Evans|
|Play Sufficiency Child Survey Analysis||www.playwales.org.uk||Marianne Mannello|
|The National Survey for Wales||www.gov.wales/national-survey-wales||Chris Roberts|
|Swan-Linx and Bridge-Linx Data||n/a||Amie Richards|
|Dragon Challenge||n/a||Gareth Stratton|
|Movement Assessment Battery for Children||n/a||Nalda Wainwright|
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|Overall Physical Activity||% of children and young people who meet the Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health , which recommend that children and young people accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity per day on average.* |
% of children and young people meeting the guidelines on at least four days a week (when an average cannot be estimated).
|Organised Sport and Physical Activity||% of children and young people who participate in organised sport and/or physical activity programs.*|
|Active Play||% of children and young people who engage in unstructured/unorganised active play at any intensity for more than two hours a day.*|
% of children and young people who report being outdoors for more than two hours a day *.
|Active Transportation||% of children and young people who use active transportation to get to and from places (e.g., school, park, mall, friend’s house) *.|
|Sedentary Behaviours||% of children and young people who meet the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines  (5- to 17-year-olds: no more than two hours of recreational screen time per day). Note: the Guidelines currently provide a time limit recommendation for screen-related pursuits, but not for non-screen-related pursuits *.|
|Physical Fitness||Average percentile achieved on certain physical fitness indicators based on the normative values published by Tomkinson et al.  *|
|Family and Peers||% of family members (e.g., parents, guardians) who facilitate physical activity and sport opportunities for their children (e.g., volunteering, coaching, driving, paying for membership fees and equipment) *.|
% of parents who meet the Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health , which recommend that adults accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or at least 75 min of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity *.
% of family members (e.g., parents, guardians) who are physically active with their kids.
% of children and young people with friends and peers who encourage and support them to be physically active *.
% of children and young people who encourage and support their friends and peers to be physically active.
|School||% of schools with active school policies (e.g., daily physical education (PE), daily physical activity, recess, “everyone plays” approach, bike racks at school, traffic calming on school property, outdoor time) *.|
% of schools where the majority (≥80%) of students are taught by a PE specialist *.
% of schools where the majority (≥80%) of students are offered the mandated amount of PE (for the given state/territory/region/country) *.
% of schools that offer physical activity opportunities (excluding PE) to the majority (>80%) of their students *.
% of children and young people who have access to physical activity opportunities at school in addition to PE classes *.
% of schools with students who have regular access to facilities and equipment that support physical activity (e.g., gymnasium, outdoor playgrounds, sporting fields, multipurpose space for physical activity, equipment in good condition) *.
|Community and Environment||% of children or parents who perceive their community/municipality is doing a good job at promoting physical activity (e.g., variety, location, cost, quality) *.|
% of communities/municipalities that report they have policies promoting physical activity.
% of communities/municipalities that report they have infrastructure (e.g., sidewalks, trails, paths, bike lanes) specifically geared toward promoting physical activity.
% of children or parents who report having facilities, programs, parks, and playgrounds available to them in their community *.
% of children or parents who report living in a safe neighbourhood where they can be physically active.*
% of children or parents who report having well-maintained facilities, parks, and playgrounds in their community that are safe to use.
|Government||Evidence of leadership and commitment in providing physical activity opportunities for all children and young people. Allocated funds and resources for the implementation of physical activity promotion strategies and initiatives for all children and young people. Demonstrated progress through the key stages of public policy making (i.e., policy agenda, policy formation, policy implementation, policy evaluation and decisions about the future). HEPA PAT v2 and the scoring rubric published by Ward et al.  *|
|Physical Literacy||% of children and young people who are physically active, physically competent, motivated, confident and possess knowledge and understanding within the cognitive domain of physical literacy *.|
|Inc||Incomplete, insufficient or inadequate information to assign a grade|
|Data Source||Sample Size||Age Range||Indicator(s) Used|
|School Health Research Network Student Health and Wellbeing Survey||110,877||11–16 years||Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, Active Play, Active Transportation, School, Physical Literacy|
|School Health Research Network School Environment Questionnaire||167 secondary school senior leaders||n/a||School|
|Health and Attainment of Pupils in a Primary Education Network||1329||8–11 years||Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, Active Transportation, School, Community and Environment, Physical Literacy|
|School Sport Participation Survey||118,893||7–16 years||Organised Sport Participation, Family and Peers, School, Physical Literacy|
|School Sport Provision Survey||869 primary school PE teacher/coordinators186 secondary school PE teacher/coordinators||n/a||School|
|Further Education Sport and Active Lifestyles Survey||3857||16+ years||Organised Sport Participation, Physical Literacy|
|Play Sufficiency Child Survey Analysis||5884||4–18 years||Active Play, Active Transportation, Family and Peers, Community and Environment|
|The National Survey for Wales||11,922|
|Active Transportation, Family and Peers, Community and Environment|
|Swan-Linx and Bridge-Linx Data||4778||9–12 years||Physical Fitness|
|Dragon Challenge||4555||9–12 years||Physical Literacy|
|Movement Assessment Battery for Children||92||5–7 years||Physical Literacy|
|Overall Physical Activity||D−||D−||D+||F|
|Organised Sport and Physical Activity||C−||C||C+||C|
|Family and Peer Influence||D||D+||D||D+|
|Community and Environment||B||C||Inc||C|
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Richards, A.B.; Mackintosh, K.A.; Swindell, N.; Ward, M.; Marchant, E.; James, M.; Edwards, L.C.; Tyler, R.; Blain, D.; Wainwright, N.; Nicholls, S.; Mannello, M.; Morgan, K.; Evans, T.; Stratton, G. WALES 2021 Active Healthy Kids (AHK) Report Card: The Fourth Pandemic of Childhood Inactivity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 8138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138138
Richards AB, Mackintosh KA, Swindell N, Ward M, Marchant E, James M, Edwards LC, Tyler R, Blain D, Wainwright N, Nicholls S, Mannello M, Morgan K, Evans T, Stratton G. WALES 2021 Active Healthy Kids (AHK) Report Card: The Fourth Pandemic of Childhood Inactivity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13):8138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138138Chicago/Turabian Style
Richards, Amie B., Kelly A. Mackintosh, Nils Swindell, Malcolm Ward, Emily Marchant, Michaela James, Lowri C. Edwards, Richard Tyler, Dylan Blain, Nalda Wainwright, Sarah Nicholls, Marianne Mannello, Kelly Morgan, Tim Evans, and Gareth Stratton. 2022. "WALES 2021 Active Healthy Kids (AHK) Report Card: The Fourth Pandemic of Childhood Inactivity" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 13: 8138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138138