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Article

Penetration and Adaptation of the Highly Viscous Zinc-Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement on Contaminated Fissures: An In Vitro Study with SEM Analysis

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Private Practitioner, Pediatric Dentistry, Riyadh 11614, Saudi Arabia
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Pediatric Dentistry Division, Preventive Dentistry Department, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University (REU), Riyadh 13244, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha 442004, Maharashtra, India
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Prince Salman bin Muhammad Hospital, Ministry of Health, Ad Dilam Governorate, Riyadh 16223, Saudi Arabia
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Dental Public Health, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University (REU), Riyadh 13244, Saudi Arabia
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Pediatric Dentistry Specialist, Al Muzahmiyah General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Al Muzahmiyah, Riyadh 11972, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Preventive Science, College of Dentistry, Majmaah University, Almajmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
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Center for Transdisciplinary Research (CFTR), Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai 600077, India
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ziad D. Baghdadi and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106291
Received: 24 March 2022 / Revised: 11 May 2022 / Accepted: 20 May 2022 / Published: 22 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
Objective: To evaluate the penetration and adaptation of highly viscous zinc-reinforced glass ionomer cement (ZRGIC), using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), when applied under various contaminated conditions on grooves and fissures of primary second molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 extracted human primary second molars were randomly assigned into five groups (8 teeth each), with different surface conditions (conditioned with 40% polyacrylic acid, dry condition, water contamination, saliva contamination, or saliva contamination and air-drying) on the occlusal surface before placement of zinc-reinforced highly viscous glass ionomer cement with the finger-press technique. After sectioning the teeth, they were subjected to SEM analysis, where four in each group underwent aging by thermocycling and the other four were without aging. ANOVA tests, post hoc analysis, and unpaired t-tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: There was a significant statistical difference in the sealant penetration in the non-aging group, but in the aging group, there was no significant statistical difference in the sealant penetration. On other hand, a significant statistical difference was found in the adaptation between all the groups (p < 0.05). Highly viscous zinc-reinforced glass ionomer fissure sealants have better fissure penetration and more intimate adaptation under fissures conditioned with 40% polyacrylic acid and dry surface fissures with no contamination. However, the best penetration and retention after aging were under contaminated fissures with a shiny layer of saliva. Conclusions: The ZRGIC is a highly viscous fluoride-releasing cement, effectively seals fissures by interfering with food lodgment and protecting teeth from caries. It is advisable to restore the fissures with the minimal technique of sensitive fluoride-releasing GIC, particularly in young, uncooperative children, rather than leaving a caries-prone environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: glass ionomer cement; fissures; zinc; children; fluoride glass ionomer cement; fissures; zinc; children; fluoride
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MDPI and ACS Style

AlJefri, G.H.; Kotha, S.B.; Murad, M.H.; Aljudaibi, R.M.; Almotawah, F.N.; Mallineni, S.K. Penetration and Adaptation of the Highly Viscous Zinc-Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement on Contaminated Fissures: An In Vitro Study with SEM Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 6291. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106291

AMA Style

AlJefri GH, Kotha SB, Murad MH, Aljudaibi RM, Almotawah FN, Mallineni SK. Penetration and Adaptation of the Highly Viscous Zinc-Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement on Contaminated Fissures: An In Vitro Study with SEM Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(10):6291. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106291

Chicago/Turabian Style

AlJefri, Galiah Husam, Sunil Babu Kotha, Muhannad Hani Murad, Reham Mohammed Aljudaibi, Fatmah Nasser Almotawah, and Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni. 2022. "Penetration and Adaptation of the Highly Viscous Zinc-Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement on Contaminated Fissures: An In Vitro Study with SEM Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 10: 6291. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106291

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