Next Article in Journal
Association between Social Integration and Face Mask Use Behavior during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in Japan: Results from U-CORONA Study
Previous Article in Journal
Promoting Sustainable Mobility: A Perspective from Car and Public Transport Users
Article

The Economic Impact of the SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Spain

1
Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Management, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas, Spain
2
Canary Health Service, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín, 35010 Las Palmas, Spain
3
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul B. Tchounwou, José-María Abellán, Fernando Sánchez-Martínez and Ángel López-Nicolás
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094708
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 21 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit both the Spanish economy and the population’s health hard. The result is an unprecedented economic and social crisis due to uncertainty about the remedy and the socioeconomic effects on people’s lives. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the macroeconomic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 using key indicators of the Spanish economy for the 17 Autonomous Communities (ACs) of the country. National statistics were examined in the search for impacts or anomalies occurring since the beginning of the pandemic. To estimate the strength of the impact on each of the indicators analyzed, we used Bayesian structural time series. We also calculated the correlation between the rate of GDP decline during 2020 and the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the ACs. Results: In 2020, the cumulative impact on the gross domestic product was of −11.41% (95% credible interval: −13.46; −9.29). The indicator for business turnover changed by −9.37% (−12.71; −6.07). The Spanish employment market was strongly affected; our estimates showed a cumulative increase of 11.9% (4.27; 19.45) in the rate of unemployment during 2020. The worst indicators were recorded in the ACs most economically dependent on the services sector. There was no statistical association between the incidence of COVID-19 in 2020 and the fall in GDP in the ACs. Conclusions: Our estimates portray a dramatic situation in Spain, where the COVID-19 crisis has had more serious economic and health consequences than in other European countries. The productive system in Spain is too dependent on sectors vulnerable to the pandemic, and it is necessary to design and implement profound changes through the European Next Generation program. View Full-Text
Keywords: economic impact; uncertainty; COVID-19; Bayesian structural time series; Spain economic impact; uncertainty; COVID-19; Bayesian structural time series; Spain
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pinilla, J.; Barber, P.; Vallejo-Torres, L.; Rodríguez-Mireles, S.; López-Valcárcel, B.G.; Serra-Majem, L. The Economic Impact of the SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4708. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094708

AMA Style

Pinilla J, Barber P, Vallejo-Torres L, Rodríguez-Mireles S, López-Valcárcel BG, Serra-Majem L. The Economic Impact of the SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4708. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094708

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pinilla, Jaime, Patricia Barber, Laura Vallejo-Torres, Silvia Rodríguez-Mireles, Beatriz G. López-Valcárcel, and Luis Serra-Majem. 2021. "The Economic Impact of the SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Spain" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4708. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094708

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop