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Article

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Non-School Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Adiposity among Boys and Girls: An Isotemporal Substitution Approach

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
2
Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael J. Duncan, Cain Clark, Clarice Maria De Lucena Martins and Jorge Mota
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094671
Received: 27 March 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 25 April 2021 / Published: 27 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Physical Activity, Exercise and Obesity)
This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the substitution of non-school time light physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary time (ST) with adiposity in boys and girls. Boys (n = 65, baseline Mage= 9.93 ± 0.86 years) and girls (n = 77, baseline Mage = 10.17 ± 0.95 years) wore waist-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X) at baseline and at a 30-month follow-up, from which non-school time LPA, MVPA, ST, and total device wear were quantified. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Body fat percent (BF%) was obtained at follow-up only. Isotemporal substitution models assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of reallocating non-school time activity with BMI, WHR and BF%. In boys, replacing 30 min/day of LPA with MVPA was cross-sectionally (β = −8.26, p < 0.05) associated with a lower BF%. Replacing 30 min/day of ST with MVPA was cross-sectionally (β = −6.02, p < 0.05) associated with a lower BF% in boys. Longitudinally in boys, replacing 30 min of change in LPA with MVPA (β = −7.42, p < 0.10) and replacing 30 min of change in MVPA with ST (β = 5.78, p < 0.10) over 30 months was marginally associated with less BF%. Associations were null in girls (p > 0.05). These results may support targeting activity reallocation during non-school time for the purposes of adiposity improvement in boys. A multi-behavioral approach may be more appropriate for girls, as non-school time activity may not be driving adiposity status. View Full-Text
Keywords: reallocation; obesity; youth; sex differences; accelerometry reallocation; obesity; youth; sex differences; accelerometry
MDPI and ACS Style

McAlister, K.L.; Zink, J.; Chu, D.; Belcher, B.R.; Dunton, G.F. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Non-School Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Adiposity among Boys and Girls: An Isotemporal Substitution Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4671. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094671

AMA Style

McAlister KL, Zink J, Chu D, Belcher BR, Dunton GF. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Non-School Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Adiposity among Boys and Girls: An Isotemporal Substitution Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4671. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094671

Chicago/Turabian Style

McAlister, Kelsey L., Jennifer Zink, Daniel Chu, Britni R. Belcher, and Genevieve F. Dunton 2021. "Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Non-School Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Adiposity among Boys and Girls: An Isotemporal Substitution Approach" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4671. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094671

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