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Article

Structural Equation Modeling of Tongue Function and Tongue Hygiene in Acute Stroke Patients

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Oral Health Sciences for Community Welfare, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
2
Geriatric Dentistry, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo 145-8510, Japan
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Dental Anesthesiology and Orofacial Pain Management, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
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Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
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Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
6
Oral Surgery, Saitama Red Cross Hospital, Japanese Red Cross Society, Saitama 330-0081, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco Javier Rodríguez Lozano
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094567
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 26 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationships between Oral Health Management and Systemic Health)
In acute stroke patients, it is important to maintain tongue hygiene and tongue function for prognosis management. However, the direct relationship between these factors is unclear, since these are often assessed by multiple observables. In this study, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, a tool to analyze the relationship between concepts that cannot be measured directly, to analyze the relationship between tongue hygiene and tongue function. The subjects were 73 patients with acute stroke admitted to a university hospital who underwent dental intervention. Age, sex, nutritional intake method, clinical severity classification of dysphagia, number of current teeth, number of functional teeth, oral health, tongue movement, tongue coating, number of microorganisms on the tongue surface, tongue surface moisture level, and tongue pressure were measured at the first visit. SEM analysis showed that the relationship between tongue function and tongue hygiene was 0.05 between tongue function and swallowing function was 0.90, and that between tongue hygiene and swallowing function was 0.09. We found no statistical relationship between tongue function and tongue hygiene in acute stroke patients. However, it was reconfirmed that tongue function is strongly related to feeding and swallowing functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural equation modeling; tongue function; tongue hygiene; oral health assessment tool; acute stroke structural equation modeling; tongue function; tongue hygiene; oral health assessment tool; acute stroke
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hidaka, R.; Furuya, J.; Nishiyama, A.; Suzuki, H.; Aoyagi, M.; Matsubara, C.; Yoshizumi, Y.; Yoshimi, K.; Nakane, A.; Tohara, H.; Sato, Y.; Minakuchi, S. Structural Equation Modeling of Tongue Function and Tongue Hygiene in Acute Stroke Patients. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4567. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094567

AMA Style

Hidaka R, Furuya J, Nishiyama A, Suzuki H, Aoyagi M, Matsubara C, Yoshizumi Y, Yoshimi K, Nakane A, Tohara H, Sato Y, Minakuchi S. Structural Equation Modeling of Tongue Function and Tongue Hygiene in Acute Stroke Patients. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4567. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094567

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hidaka, Rena, Junichi Furuya, Akira Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Michiyo Aoyagi, Chiaki Matsubara, Yu Yoshizumi, Kanako Yoshimi, Ayako Nakane, Haruka Tohara, Yuji Sato, and Shunsuke Minakuchi. 2021. "Structural Equation Modeling of Tongue Function and Tongue Hygiene in Acute Stroke Patients" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4567. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094567

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