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Article

Long-Term Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Are Present after Bariatric Surgery, despite the Widespread Use of Supplements

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Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele Open University, 00166 Rome, Italy
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Department of Systems Medicine, Tor Vergata University, 00133 Rome, Italy
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Independent Researcher, Via Venezuela 66, 98121 Messina, Italy
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School of Human Movement Sciences, Tor Vergata University, 00133 Rome, Italy
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Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00163 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eusebio Chiefari
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094541
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 25 April 2021
There are few long-term nutritional studies in subjects undergoing bariatric surgery that have assessed weight regain and nutritional deficiencies. In this study, we report data 8 years after surgery on weight loss, use of dietary supplements and deficit of micronutrients in a cohort of patients from five centres in central and northern Italy. The study group consisted of 52 subjects (age: 38.1 ± 10.6 y, 42 females): 16 patients had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 25 patients had sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and 11 subjects had adjustable gastric banding (AGB). All three bariatric procedures led to sustained weight loss: the average percentage excess weight loss, defined as weight loss divided by excess weight based on ideal body weight, was 60.6% ± 32.3. Despite good adherence to prescribed supplements, 80.7% of subjects (72.7%, AGB; 76.7%, SG; 93.8 %, RYGB) reported at least one nutritional deficiency: iron (F 64.3% vs. M 30%), vitamin B12 (F 16.6% vs. M 10%), calcium (F 33.3% vs. M 0%) and vitamin D (F 38.1% vs. M 60%). Long-term nutritional deficiencies were greater than the general population among men for iron and among women for vitamin B12. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron; vitamin D; vitamin B12; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; sleeve gastrectomy; adjustable gastric banding; nutritional deficiency; bariatric surgery iron; vitamin D; vitamin B12; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; sleeve gastrectomy; adjustable gastric banding; nutritional deficiency; bariatric surgery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lombardo, M.; Franchi, A.; Biolcati Rinaldi, R.; Rizzo, G.; D’Adamo, M.; Guglielmi, V.; Bellia, A.; Padua, E.; Caprio, M.; Sbraccia, P. Long-Term Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Are Present after Bariatric Surgery, despite the Widespread Use of Supplements. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4541. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094541

AMA Style

Lombardo M, Franchi A, Biolcati Rinaldi R, Rizzo G, D’Adamo M, Guglielmi V, Bellia A, Padua E, Caprio M, Sbraccia P. Long-Term Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Are Present after Bariatric Surgery, despite the Widespread Use of Supplements. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4541. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094541

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lombardo, Mauro, Arianna Franchi, Roberto Biolcati Rinaldi, Gianluca Rizzo, Monica D’Adamo, Valeria Guglielmi, Alfonso Bellia, Elvira Padua, Massimiliano Caprio, and Paolo Sbraccia. 2021. "Long-Term Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Are Present after Bariatric Surgery, despite the Widespread Use of Supplements" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4541. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094541

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