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Article

Athletes’ Self-Assessment of Urine Color Using Two Color Charts to Determine Urine Concentration

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College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
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Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA
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Michael Graves College, Wenzhou-Kean University, No.88 Daxue Road, Ouhai District, Wenzhou 325060, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gustavo R. Mota and Moacir Marocolo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084126
Received: 13 March 2021 / Revised: 8 April 2021 / Accepted: 10 April 2021 / Published: 13 April 2021
Our objective was to determine self-reported accuracy of an athletic population using two different urine color (Uc) charts (8-color vs. 7-color Uc chart). After approval by the Institutional Review Board, members of an athletic population (n = 189, 20 (19–22) year old student- or tactical athletes and coaches, with n = 99 males and n = 90 females) scored their Uc using two charts. To determine the diagnostic value of Uc, results were compared with urine concentration (osmolality and urine specific gravity, USG). Uc was scored slightly darker with the 8-color vs. 7-color Uc chart (2.2 ± 1.2 vs. 2.0 ± 1.2, respectively, p < 0.001), with a moderate correlation between charts (r = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69–0.81). Bland-Altman analysis showed a weak reporting bias (r = 0.15, p = 0.04). The area under the curve for correct urine sample classification ranged between 0.74 and 0.86. Higher accuracy for both methods was found when Uc scores were compared to USG over osmolality, indicated by 4.8–14.8% range in difference between methods. The optimal Uc cut-off value to assess a low vs. a high urine concentration for both Uc charts varied in this study between 1 and ≤2 while accuracy for charts was similar up to 77% when compared to USG. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-reporting; hydration status; osmolality; USG; accuracy; validation self-reporting; hydration status; osmolality; USG; accuracy; validation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wardenaar, F.C.; Thompsett, D.; Vento, K.A.; Pesek, K.; Bacalzo, D. Athletes’ Self-Assessment of Urine Color Using Two Color Charts to Determine Urine Concentration. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4126. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084126

AMA Style

Wardenaar FC, Thompsett D, Vento KA, Pesek K, Bacalzo D. Athletes’ Self-Assessment of Urine Color Using Two Color Charts to Determine Urine Concentration. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4126. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084126

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wardenaar, Floris C., Daniel Thompsett, Kaila A. Vento, Kathryn Pesek, and Dean Bacalzo. 2021. "Athletes’ Self-Assessment of Urine Color Using Two Color Charts to Determine Urine Concentration" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4126. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084126

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