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Article

Physical, Perceptual, Socio-Relational, and Affective Skills of Five-Year-Old Children Born Preterm and Full-Term According to Their Body Mass Index

1
Faculty of Education, Albacete, University of Castilla La Mancha, 13001 Ciudad Real, Spain
2
Faculty of Psychology, National University of Distance Education, 28015 Madrid, Spain
3
Faculty of Education, University Antonio of Nebrij, 28015 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gavin Pereira
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3769; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073769
Received: 16 February 2021 / Revised: 2 April 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 4 April 2021
The main purpose of this study was to compare the psychomotor development of five-year-old children born preterm and full term. The comparison included physical-motor, perceptual-motor, and socio-relational and affective skills. As low weight is one of the variables that most influences the psychomotor development of premature infants, a secondary aim was to analyze these skills according to their current body mass index (BMI). A prospective simple ex-post facto study was conducted. The sample consisted of 672 five-year-old children enrolled in the third year of early childhood education in the province of Albacete, Spain; 35 of them was born prematurely. Children were evaluated by their teachers using the Checklist of Psychomotor Activities (CPA). The results show that children born preterm had a lower development of their physical-motor skills. In the perceptual-motor field, premature children showed lower scores in the variables related to their body image and body schema, motor dissociation, and visual-motor coordination, as well as in socio-relational and affective aspects. However, the development in laterality, dynamic coordination, motor execution, tonic-postural control, and balance were not affected. These differences were not affected by the current weight, given that the analysis of the BMI indicated no differences in preterm children. This study demonstrated the need to establish protocols oriented to the prevention of the difficulties detected in children with psychomotor high-risk and the needs to reinforce the educational programs in this area to improve the integral development of children born preterm. View Full-Text
Keywords: preterm children; physical-motor skills; perceptual-motor skills; socio-relational skills; body mass index preterm children; physical-motor skills; perceptual-motor skills; socio-relational skills; body mass index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gil-Madrona, P.; Romero-Martínez, S.J.; Roz-Faraco, C.C. Physical, Perceptual, Socio-Relational, and Affective Skills of Five-Year-Old Children Born Preterm and Full-Term According to Their Body Mass Index. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3769. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073769

AMA Style

Gil-Madrona P, Romero-Martínez SJ, Roz-Faraco CC. Physical, Perceptual, Socio-Relational, and Affective Skills of Five-Year-Old Children Born Preterm and Full-Term According to Their Body Mass Index. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3769. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073769

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gil-Madrona, Pedro, Sonia J. Romero-Martínez, and Carmen C. Roz-Faraco. 2021. "Physical, Perceptual, Socio-Relational, and Affective Skills of Five-Year-Old Children Born Preterm and Full-Term According to Their Body Mass Index" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3769. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073769

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