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Open AccessArticle

Community Risk Factors in the COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Catalonia (Spain). A Population-Based Study

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Environment and Human Health Laboratory (EH2 Lab), Forest Science and Technology Center of Catalonia, Ctra. de St. Llorenç de Morunys, km 2, 25280 Solsona, Spain
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Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), Z Building, ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
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Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit, Pediatric Team of Garrotxa and Ripollès Regions, Olot and Garrotxa Region Hospital Foundation, 17800 Olot, Spain
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Centre de Recerca Matemàtica, Edifici C, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
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Barcelona Supercomputing Center, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
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Health Promotion Service in Girona, Agency of Public Health of Catalonia, Generalitat of Catalonia, 17003 Girona, Spain
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Research Group on Statistics, Econometrics and Health (GRECS), University of Girona, 17003 Girona, Spain
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CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Departament of Physics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya·BarcelonaTech, Esteve Terrades 5, 08034 Castelldefels, Spain
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Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC-UPC), Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
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Forest Science and Technology Center of Catalonia, Ctra. de St. Llorenç de Morunys, km 2, 25280 Solsona, Spain
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Geography Department, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), B Building, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073768
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 4 April 2021
The heterogenous distribution of both COVID-19 incidence and mortality in Catalonia (Spain) during the firsts moths of the pandemic suggests that differences in baseline risk factors across regions might play a relevant role in modulating the outcome of the pandemic. This paper investigates the associations between both COVID-19 incidence and mortality and air pollutant concentration levels, and screens the potential effect of the type of agri-food industry and the overall land use and cover (LULC) at area level. We used a main model with demographic, socioeconomic and comorbidity covariates highlighted in previous research as important predictors. This allowed us to take a glimpse of the independent effect of the explanatory variables when controlled for the main model covariates. Our findings are aligned with previous research showing that the baseline features of the regions in terms of general health status, pollutant concentration levels (here NO2 and PM10), type of agri-food industry, and type of land use and land cover have modulated the impact of COVID-19 at a regional scale. This study is among the first to explore the associations between COVID-19 and the type of agri-food industry and LULC data using a population-based approach. The results of this paper might serve as the basis to develop new research hypotheses using a more comprehensive approach, highlighting the inequalities of regions in terms of risk factors and their response to COVID-19, as well as fostering public policies towards more resilient and safer environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; air pollutants; cardiovascular diseases; psychological disorders; cancer; agri-food industry; land use and land cover data COVID-19; air pollutants; cardiovascular diseases; psychological disorders; cancer; agri-food industry; land use and land cover data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaldo-Aubanell, Q.; Campillo i López, F.; Bach, A.; Serra, I.; Olivet-Vila, J.; Saez, M.; Pino, D.; Maneja, R. Community Risk Factors in the COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Catalonia (Spain). A Population-Based Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3768. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073768

AMA Style

Zaldo-Aubanell Q, Campillo i López F, Bach A, Serra I, Olivet-Vila J, Saez M, Pino D, Maneja R. Community Risk Factors in the COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Catalonia (Spain). A Population-Based Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3768. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073768

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zaldo-Aubanell, Quim; Campillo i López, Ferran; Bach, Albert; Serra, Isabel; Olivet-Vila, Joan; Saez, Marc; Pino, David; Maneja, Roser. 2021. "Community Risk Factors in the COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Catalonia (Spain). A Population-Based Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 7: 3768. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073768

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