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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection in the Representative COVID-19 Cohort Munich

1
Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, 80802 Munich, Germany
2
German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Munich, 80802 Munich, Germany
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Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
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Center for International Health (CIH), University Hospital, LMU Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
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Comprehensive Pneumology Center (CPC) Munich, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), 89337 Munich, Germany
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Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Computational Biology, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
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Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Core Facility Statistical Consulting, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
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Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
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Center for Mathematics, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany
10
Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, 80937 Munich, Germany
11
Interdisciplinary Research Unit Mathematics and Life Sciences, University of Bonn, 53113 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Those authors contributed equally.
KoCo19 study group: Emad Alamoudi, Jared Anderson, Valeria Baldassare, Maximilian Baumann, Marc Becker, Marieke Behlen, Jessica Beyerl, Rebecca Böhnlein, Anna Brauer, Vera Britz, Friedrich Caroli, Lorenzo Contento, Alina Czwienzek, Flora Deák, Emma Dech, Laura Dech, Jana Diekmannshemke, Anna Do, Gerhard Dobler, Jürgen Durner, Ute Eberle, Judith Eckstein, Tabea M. Eser, Philine Falk, Volker Fingerle, Stefanie Fischer, Marius Gasser, Sonja Gauder, Otto Geisenberger, Christof Geldmacher, Leonard Gilberg, Kristina Gillig, Philipp Girl, Elias Golschan, Vitus Grauvogl, Celina Halfmann, Tim Haselwarter, Arlett Heiber, Matthias Herrmann, Stefan Hillmann, Christian Hinske, Janna Hoefflin, Tim Hofberger, Michael Höfinger, Larissa Hofmann, Sacha Horn, Kristina Huber, Christian Janke, Ursula Kappl, Charlotte Kiani, Isabel Klugherz, Norah Kreider, Arne Kroidl, Magdalena Lang, Clemens Lang, Silvan Lange, Ekaterina Lapteva, Michael Laxy, Reiner Leidl, Felix Lindner, Alexander Maczka, Alisa Markgraf, Paula Matcau, Rebecca Mayrhofer, Anna-Maria Mekota, Hannah Müller, Katharina Müller, Leonie Pattard, Claire Pleimelding, Stephan Prückner, Konstantin Pusl, Elba Raimúndez, Julius Raschka, Jakob Reich, Raquel Rubio-Acero, Nicole Schäfer, Paul Schandelmaier, Lara Schneider, Sophie Schultz, Mirjam Schunk, Lars Schwettmann, Heidi Seibold, Paul Stapor, Jeni Tang, Fabian Theis, Sophie Thiesbrummel, Eva Thumser, Niklas Thur, Julian Ullrich, Julia Waibel, Claudia Wallrauch, Julia Wolff, Pia Wullinger, Tobias Würfel, Patrick Wustrow, Houda Yaqine, Sabine Zange, Eleftheria Zeggini, Thorbjörn Zimmer, Thomas Zimmermann, Lea Zuche.
Academic Editors: Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach, Maria Luisa Moro, Monika Chlebowicz, Anna Różańska and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073572
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 27 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
Given the large number of mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases, only population-based studies can provide reliable estimates of the magnitude of the pandemic. We therefore aimed to assess the sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the Munich general population after the first wave of the pandemic. For this purpose, we drew a representative sample of 2994 private households and invited household members 14 years and older to complete questionnaires and to provide blood samples. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was defined as Roche N pan-Ig ≥ 0.4218. We adjusted the prevalence for the sampling design, sensitivity, and specificity. We investigated risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and geospatial transmission patterns by generalized linear mixed models and permutation tests. Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies was 1.82% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–2.37%) as compared to 0.46% PCR-positive cases officially registered in Munich. Loss of the sense of smell or taste was associated with seropositivity (odds ratio (OR) 47.4; 95% CI 7.2–307.0) and infections clustered within households. By this first population-based study on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in a large German municipality not affected by a superspreading event, we could show that at least one in four cases in private households was reported and known to the health authorities. These results will help authorities to estimate the true burden of disease in the population and to take evidence-based decisions on public health measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; population-based cohort study; seroprevalence; infection fatality ratio; underreporting COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; population-based cohort study; seroprevalence; infection fatality ratio; underreporting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pritsch, M.; Radon, K.; Bakuli, A.; Le Gleut, R.; Olbrich, L.; Guggenbüehl Noller, J.M.; Saathoff, E.; Castelletti, N.; Garí, M.; Pütz, P.; Schälte, Y.; Frahnow, T.; Wölfel, R.; Rothe, C.; Pletschette, M.; Metaxa, D.; Forster, F.; Thiel, V.; Rieß, F.; Diefenbach, M.N.; Fröschl, G.; Bruger, J.; Winter, S.; Frese, J.; Puchinger, K.; Brand, I.; Kroidl, I.; Hasenauer, J.; Fuchs, C.; Wieser, A.; Hoelscher, M.; on behalf of the KoCo19 study group. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection in the Representative COVID-19 Cohort Munich. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3572. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073572

AMA Style

Pritsch M, Radon K, Bakuli A, Le Gleut R, Olbrich L, Guggenbüehl Noller JM, Saathoff E, Castelletti N, Garí M, Pütz P, Schälte Y, Frahnow T, Wölfel R, Rothe C, Pletschette M, Metaxa D, Forster F, Thiel V, Rieß F, Diefenbach MN, Fröschl G, Bruger J, Winter S, Frese J, Puchinger K, Brand I, Kroidl I, Hasenauer J, Fuchs C, Wieser A, Hoelscher M, on behalf of the KoCo19 study group. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection in the Representative COVID-19 Cohort Munich. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3572. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073572

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pritsch, Michael, Katja Radon, Abhishek Bakuli, Ronan Le Gleut, Laura Olbrich, Jessica M. Guggenbüehl Noller, Elmar Saathoff, Noemi Castelletti, Mercè Garí, Peter Pütz, Yannik Schälte, Turid Frahnow, Roman Wölfel, Camilla Rothe, Michel Pletschette, Dafni Metaxa, Felix Forster, Verena Thiel, Friedrich Rieß, Maximilian N. Diefenbach, Günter Fröschl, Jan Bruger, Simon Winter, Jonathan Frese, Kerstin Puchinger, Isabel Brand, Inge Kroidl, Jan Hasenauer, Christiane Fuchs, Andreas Wieser, Michael Hoelscher, and on behalf of the KoCo19 study group. 2021. "Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection in the Representative COVID-19 Cohort Munich" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3572. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073572

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