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Article

Effects of Exercise on the Oral Microbiota and Saliva of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8576, Japan
2
Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan
3
Department of Medical Technology and Sciences, International University of Health and Welfare, Narita, Chiba 286-8686, Japan
4
Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan
5
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan
6
Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073470
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Exercise in the Management of Chronic Disease)
Exercise can be hypothesized to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) treatment by changing the oral bacterial flora and in the mechanism underlying periodontal disease. We performed salivary component analysis before and after an exercise regimen, and genome analysis of the oral bacterial flora to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Obese middle-aged men with NAFLD and periodontal disease were allocated to 12-week exercise (n = 49) or dietary restriction (n = 21) groups. We collected saliva to compare the oral microflora; performed predictive analysis of metagenomic functions; and, measured the salivary immunoglobulin A, cytokine, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lactoferrin concentrations. The exercise group showed improvements in the clinical indices of oral environment. Salivary component analysis revealed significant reductions in LPS, and lactoferrin during the exercise regimen. Diversity analysis of oral bacterial flora revealed higher alpha- and beta-diversity after the exercise regimen. Analysis of the microbial composition revealed that the numbers of Campylobacter (+83.9%), Corynebacterium (+142.3%), Actinomyces (+75.9%), and Lautropia (+172.9%) were significantly higher, and that of Prevotella (−28.3%) was significantly lower. The findings suggest that an exercise regimen improves the oral environment of NAFLD patients by increasing the diversity of the oral microflora and reducing the number of periodontal bacteria that produce LPS and its capability. View Full-Text
Keywords: periodontal disease; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; exercise; clinical trial; oral microbiota; saliva components periodontal disease; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; exercise; clinical trial; oral microbiota; saliva components
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MDPI and ACS Style

Uchida, F.; Oh, S.; Shida, T.; Suzuki, H.; Yamagata, K.; Mizokami, Y.; Bukawa, H.; Tanaka, K.; Shoda, J. Effects of Exercise on the Oral Microbiota and Saliva of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073470

AMA Style

Uchida F, Oh S, Shida T, Suzuki H, Yamagata K, Mizokami Y, Bukawa H, Tanaka K, Shoda J. Effects of Exercise on the Oral Microbiota and Saliva of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073470

Chicago/Turabian Style

Uchida, Fumihiko, Sechang Oh, Takashi Shida, Hideo Suzuki, Kenji Yamagata, Yuji Mizokami, Hiroki Bukawa, Kiyoji Tanaka, and Junichi Shoda. 2021. "Effects of Exercise on the Oral Microbiota and Saliva of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073470

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