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Article

Pain Acceptance Creates an Emotional Context That Protects against the Misuse of Prescription Opioids: A Study in a Sample of Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain

Facultad de Psicología y Logopedia, Andalucía Tech, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
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Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063054
Received: 10 February 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2021 / Accepted: 14 March 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Flexibility and Adjustment to Chronic Pain)
There is solid evidence of an association between several psychological flexibility processes, particularly pain acceptance, and adaptation to chronic pain. However, there are relatively few studies on the relationship between pain acceptance and opioid misuse in chronic pain patients. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test a hypothetical model in which pain acceptance would regulate pain sensations and pain-related thoughts and emotions, which would be related to opioid misuse. The sample comprised 140 chronic pain patients attending two hospitals. All patients were receiving pharmacological treatment, including opioid analgesics. Structural equation modelling analyses showed a significant association between higher pain acceptance and lower pain intensity and catastrophizing, and lower levels of anxiety and depression. Only higher anxiety and depression were significantly associated with increased opioid misuse. The results suggest that levels of anxiety, depression, and pain acceptance must be assessed before opioids are prescribed. Pain acceptance implies a relationship with internal events that protects against anxiety and depression and thus against opioid misuse. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy appears to be particularly appropriate for these patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: opioid prescriptions; pain acceptance; pain catastrophizing; depression; chronic pain; misuse opioid prescriptions; pain acceptance; pain catastrophizing; depression; chronic pain; misuse
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MDPI and ACS Style

Esteve, R.; Marcos, E.; Reyes-Pérez, Á.; López-Martínez, A.E.; Ramírez-Maestre, C. Pain Acceptance Creates an Emotional Context That Protects against the Misuse of Prescription Opioids: A Study in a Sample of Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3054. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063054

AMA Style

Esteve R, Marcos E, Reyes-Pérez Á, López-Martínez AE, Ramírez-Maestre C. Pain Acceptance Creates an Emotional Context That Protects against the Misuse of Prescription Opioids: A Study in a Sample of Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):3054. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Esteve, Rosa, Estefanía Marcos, Ángela Reyes-Pérez, Alicia E. López-Martínez, and Carmen Ramírez-Maestre. 2021. "Pain Acceptance Creates an Emotional Context That Protects against the Misuse of Prescription Opioids: A Study in a Sample of Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 3054. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063054

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