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Article

Indoor Model Simulation for COVID-19 Transport and Exposure

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Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
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Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR/Physics), University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
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Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
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Department of Virology, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Collage of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah 21423, Saudi Arabia
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Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, 51005 Tartu, Estonia
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Joint International Research Laboratory of Atmospheric and Earth System Sciences, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
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Aerosol and Haze Laboratory, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
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Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062927
Received: 14 February 2021 / Revised: 6 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 12 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Indoor Air Quality – Impacts and Feedback Cycle)
Transmission of respiratory viruses is a complex process involving emission, deposition in the airways, and infection. Inhalation is often the most relevant transmission mode in indoor environments. For severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the risk of inhalation transmission is not yet fully understood. Here, we used an indoor aerosol model combined with a regional inhaled deposited dose model to examine the indoor transport of aerosols from an infected person with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to a susceptible person and assess the potential inhaled dose rate of particles. Two scenarios with different ventilation rates were compared, as well as adult female versus male recipients. Assuming a source strength of 10 viruses/s, in a tightly closed room with poor ventilation (0.5 h−1), the respiratory tract deposited dose rate was 140–350 and 100–260 inhaled viruses/hour for males and females; respectively. With ventilation at 3 h−1 the dose rate was only 30–90 viruses/hour. Correcting for the half-life of SARS-CoV-2 in air, these numbers are reduced by a factor of 1.2–2.2 for poorly ventilated rooms and 1.1–1.4 for well-ventilated rooms. Combined with future determinations of virus emission rates, the size distribution of aerosols containing the virus, and the infectious dose, these results could play an important role in understanding the full picture of potential inhalation transmission in indoor environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; expiratory droplet; inhaled dose; indoor aerosol modeling SARS-CoV-2; expiratory droplet; inhaled dose; indoor aerosol modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussein, T.; Löndahl, J.; Thuresson, S.; Alsved, M.; Al-Hunaiti, A.; Saksela, K.; Aqel, H.; Junninen, H.; Mahura, A.; Kulmala, M. Indoor Model Simulation for COVID-19 Transport and Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062927

AMA Style

Hussein T, Löndahl J, Thuresson S, Alsved M, Al-Hunaiti A, Saksela K, Aqel H, Junninen H, Mahura A, Kulmala M. Indoor Model Simulation for COVID-19 Transport and Exposure. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062927

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hussein, Tareq, Jakob Löndahl, Sara Thuresson, Malin Alsved, Afnan Al-Hunaiti, Kalle Saksela, Hazem Aqel, Heikki Junninen, Alexander Mahura, and Markku Kulmala. 2021. "Indoor Model Simulation for COVID-19 Transport and Exposure" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 2927. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062927

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