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Article

A Cross-Country Examination on the Fear of COVID-19 and the Sense of Loneliness during the First Wave of COVID-19 Outbreak

1
Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 15, 90128 Palermo, Italy
2
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
4
Institute for Kinesiology Research, Science and Research Center Koper, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052586
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
The aim of the current study is to examine gender, age. and cross-country differences in fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness during the lockdown, by comparing people from those countries with a high rate of infections and deaths (e.g., Spain and Italy) and from countries with a mild spread of infection (e.g., Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina). A total of 3876 participants (63% female) completed an online survey on “Everyday life practices in COVID-19 time” in April 2020, including measures of fear of COVID-19 and loneliness. Males and females of all age groups in countries suffering from the powerful impact of the COVID-19 pandemic reported greater fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness. In less endangered countries, females and the elderly reported more symptoms than males and the young; in Spanish and Italian samples, the pattern of differences is considerably more complex. Future research should thoroughly examine different age and gender groups. The analysis of emotional well-being in groups at risk of mental health issues may help to lessen the long term social and economic costs due to the COVID-19 outbreak. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; fear of COVID-19; loneliness; cross-country; psychosocial distress COVID-19; fear of COVID-19; loneliness; cross-country; psychosocial distress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lo Coco, G.; Gentile, A.; Bosnar, K.; Milovanović, I.; Bianco, A.; Drid, P.; Pišot, S. A Cross-Country Examination on the Fear of COVID-19 and the Sense of Loneliness during the First Wave of COVID-19 Outbreak. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2586. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052586

AMA Style

Lo Coco G, Gentile A, Bosnar K, Milovanović I, Bianco A, Drid P, Pišot S. A Cross-Country Examination on the Fear of COVID-19 and the Sense of Loneliness during the First Wave of COVID-19 Outbreak. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2586. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052586

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lo Coco, Gianluca, Ambra Gentile, Ksenija Bosnar, Ivana Milovanović, Antonino Bianco, Patrik Drid, and Saša Pišot. 2021. "A Cross-Country Examination on the Fear of COVID-19 and the Sense of Loneliness during the First Wave of COVID-19 Outbreak" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 5: 2586. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052586

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