Next Article in Journal
Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Nitrate in Drinking Water in Central Java, Indonesia
Next Article in Special Issue
Surface Shape of the Calcaneal Tuberosity and the Occurrence of Retrocalcaneal Bursitis among Runners
Previous Article in Journal
The Association of Bisphenol A and Phthalates with Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
A New Method for Evaluating Pelvic and Trunk Rotational Pitching Mechanics: From Qualitative to Quantitative Approaches
Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Walking Backward on a Treadmill on Balance, Speed of Walking and Cardiopulmonary Fitness for Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study

by 1,2,†, 3,†, 4, 5,6, 7 and 1,5,6,8,9,*
1
Department of Sports Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Department of Physical Therapy, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Department of Neurology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
4
Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
5
The Master Program of Long-Term Care in Aging, College of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
6
Center for Long-Term Care Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
7
Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University of Science, Sapporo 006-8585, Japan
8
Ph.D. Program in Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
9
Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052376
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine of Human Movement)
This study determines the effect of walking backward on a treadmill on balance, speed of walking and cardiopulmonary fitness for patients with chronic stroke. Subjects with chronic stroke for more than six months, whose level of Brunnstrom stage is greater than IV and who are able to walk more than eleven meters with or without assistive devices were recruited. After grouping for a single-blind clinical randomized controlled trial, the subjects were divided into two groups: eight in the control group and eight in the experimental group. All subjects were subjected to 30 min traditional physical therapy, three times a week for four weeks. The experimental group was subjected to an additional 30 min of walking backward on a treadmill. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were used to determine the functional balance and walking ability. The walking speed was evaluated using a timed 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), and the cardiopulmonary fitness was determined using a 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and a pulmonary function test (PFT). All assessments were made at baseline before training commenced (pre-training) and at the end of the four-week training period (post-training). A paired t-test and an independent t-test were used to determine the effect on balance, speed of walking and cardiopulmonary fitness before and after training. The level of significance α was 0.05. After four weeks of training, the experimental group showed significant differences (p < 0.05) on TUG, BBS, 10MWT, 6MWT, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). This pilot study shows that the 30 min of walking backward on a treadmill three times a week for four weeks increased balance, speed of walking and cardiopulmonary fitness. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials NCT02619110. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic stroke; cardiopulmonary; Berg Balance Scale (BBS) chronic stroke; cardiopulmonary; Berg Balance Scale (BBS)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, K.-W.; Lin, C.-M.; Yen, C.-W.; Yang, C.-C.; Tanaka, T.; Guo, L.-Y. The Effect of Walking Backward on a Treadmill on Balance, Speed of Walking and Cardiopulmonary Fitness for Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2376. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052376

AMA Style

Chang K-W, Lin C-M, Yen C-W, Yang C-C, Tanaka T, Guo L-Y. The Effect of Walking Backward on a Treadmill on Balance, Speed of Walking and Cardiopulmonary Fitness for Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2376. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052376

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Ken-Wei; Lin, Chih-Ming; Yen, Chen-Wen; Yang, Chia-Chi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Guo, Lan-Yuen. 2021. "The Effect of Walking Backward on a Treadmill on Balance, Speed of Walking and Cardiopulmonary Fitness for Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 5: 2376. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052376

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop