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Open AccessArticle

Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Nitrate in Drinking Water in Central Java, Indonesia

1
Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Acton 2601, Australia
2
Swiss Centre for International Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
3
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Acton 2601, Australia
4
School of Public Health, Griffith Health, Griffith University, South Brisbane 4111, Australia
5
School of Medicine, Griffith Health, Griffith University, South Brisbane 4111, Australia
6
Yayasan Wahana Bakti Sejahtera (YWBS) Foundation, Semarang 50183, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Joint Senior Author.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052368
Received: 30 January 2021 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
Since 2005, over 30 epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between nitrate in drinking water and adverse health outcomes. Conditions that lead to nitrate pollution in water, such as open defecation, the proximity of septic tanks to water sources, and the use of inorganic fertilizer, are rampant in Indonesia, which has experienced little research evaluating nitrate in drinking water. We conducted a health risk assessment for exposure to nitrate in drinking water and evaluated the nitrate concentration in key water sources in two villages of rural Central Java, Indonesia. The nitrate concentrations in the drinking water ranged from 3.55 mg/L to 26.75 mg/L as NO3. Daily nitrate intake estimates, calculated at 50% and 95% exposure to the maximum nitrate concentration of the drinking water in both villages, were above the levels associated with birth defects, colorectal cancer, and thyroid conditions observed in other studies. There was a large variation in nitrate concentrations between and within the villages at different water sources. Further research into whether these health outcomes exist in rural Central Java, Indonesia will be required to better understand this risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: health risk assessment; nitrate; birth defects; drinking water; Indonesia health risk assessment; nitrate; birth defects; drinking water; Indonesia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lowe, C.; Kurscheid, J.; Lal, A.; Sadler, R.; Kelly, M.; Stewart, D.; Laksono, B.; Amaral, S.; Gray, D. Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Nitrate in Drinking Water in Central Java, Indonesia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052368

AMA Style

Lowe C, Kurscheid J, Lal A, Sadler R, Kelly M, Stewart D, Laksono B, Amaral S, Gray D. Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Nitrate in Drinking Water in Central Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lowe, Callum; Kurscheid, Johanna; Lal, Aparna; Sadler, Ross; Kelly, Matthew; Stewart, Donald; Laksono, Budi; Amaral, Salvador; Gray, Darren. 2021. "Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Nitrate in Drinking Water in Central Java, Indonesia" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 5: 2368. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052368

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