Next Article in Journal
Rapid Degradation of Carbon Tetrachloride by Microscale Ag/Fe Bimetallic Particles
Next Article in Special Issue
Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water Treatment Plants from Korea: Occurrence and Human Exposure
Previous Article in Journal
Community Resilience Governance on Public Health Crisis in China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Polyvinylchloride and Rubber Consumer Products and Toys Purchased on the Belgian Market
Article

Exposure to Phthalate and Organophosphate Esters via Indoor Dust and PM10 Is a Cause of Concern for the Exposed Saudi Population

1
Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21413, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Punjab 50700, Pakistan
5
Department of Environmental Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
6
Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
7
Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Karthikraj Rajendiran
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042125
Received: 25 December 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
In this study, we measured the occurrence of organophosphate esters (OPEs) and phthalates in the settled dust (floor and air conditioner filter dust) and in suspended particulate matter (PM10) from different microenvironments (households (n = 20), offices (n = 10) and hotels (n = 10)) of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the major pollutant (contributing >85% of total chemicals burden) in all types of indoor dust with a concentration up to 3,901,500 ng g−1. While dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and DEHP together contributed >70% in PM10 (1900 ng m−3), which indicate PM10 as a significant source of exposure for DBP and DEHP in different Saudi indoor settings. Tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) was the major OPE in PM10 with a concentration of up to 185 ng m−3 and the occurrence of OPEs in indoor dust varied in studied indoor settings. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of studied chemicals via dust ingestion and inhalation of PM10 was below the reference dose (RfD) of individual chemicals. However, estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) with moderate risk (1.5 × 10−5) for Saudi adults and calculated hazardous index (HI) of >1 for Saudi children from DEHP showed a cause of concern to the local public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: organophosphate esters; phthalates; PM10; indoor dust; Saudi Arabia organophosphate esters; phthalates; PM10; indoor dust; Saudi Arabia
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, N.; Alhakamy, N.A.; Ismail, I.M.I.; Nazar, E.; Summan, A.S.; Shah Eqani, S.A.M.A.; Malarvannan, G. Exposure to Phthalate and Organophosphate Esters via Indoor Dust and PM10 Is a Cause of Concern for the Exposed Saudi Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2125. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042125

AMA Style

Ali N, Alhakamy NA, Ismail IMI, Nazar E, Summan AS, Shah Eqani SAMA, Malarvannan G. Exposure to Phthalate and Organophosphate Esters via Indoor Dust and PM10 Is a Cause of Concern for the Exposed Saudi Population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):2125. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042125

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ali, Nadeem, Nabil A. Alhakamy, Iqbal M.I. Ismail, Ehtisham Nazar, Ahmed S. Summan, Syed A.M.A. Shah Eqani, and Govindan Malarvannan. 2021. "Exposure to Phthalate and Organophosphate Esters via Indoor Dust and PM10 Is a Cause of Concern for the Exposed Saudi Population" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 2125. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042125

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop