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Article

Socioeconomic Inequalities in COVID-19 in a European Urban Area: Two Waves, Two Patterns

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Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, 08023 Barcelona, Spain
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CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), 08041 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, Gynecology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Riccardo Polosa, Pietro Ferrara, Luciana Albano and Venera Tomaselli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031256
Received: 26 December 2020 / Revised: 17 January 2021 / Accepted: 24 January 2021 / Published: 30 January 2021
Background: The objective of this paper is to analyze social inequalities in COVID-19 incidence, stratified by age, sex, geographical area, and income in Barcelona during the first two waves of the pandemic. Methods: We collected data on COVID-19 cases confirmed by laboratory tests during the first two waves of the pandemic (1 March to 15 July and 16 July to 30 November, 2020) in Barcelona. For each wave and sex, we calculated smooth cumulative incidence by census tract using a hierarchical Bayesian model. We analyzed income inequalities in the incidence of COVID-19, categorizing the census tracts into quintiles based on the income indicator. Results: During the two waves, women showed higher COVID-19 cumulative incidence under 64 years, while the trend was reversed after that threshold. The incidence of the disease was higher in some poor neighborhoods. The risk ratio (RR) increased in the poorest groups compared to the richest ones, mainly in the second wave, with RR being 1.67 (95% Credible Interval-CI-: 1.41–1.96) in the fifth quintile income group for men and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.44–1.99) for women. Conclusion: Our results indicate the existence of inequalities in the incidence of COVID-19 in an urban area of Southern Europe. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; inequalities; geographical area; urban area COVID-19; inequalities; geographical area; urban area
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marí-Dell’Olmo, M.; Gotsens, M.; Pasarín, M.I.; Rodríguez-Sanz, M.; Artazcoz, L.; Garcia de Olalla, P.; Rius, C.; Borrell, C. Socioeconomic Inequalities in COVID-19 in a European Urban Area: Two Waves, Two Patterns. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1256. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031256

AMA Style

Marí-Dell’Olmo M, Gotsens M, Pasarín MI, Rodríguez-Sanz M, Artazcoz L, Garcia de Olalla P, Rius C, Borrell C. Socioeconomic Inequalities in COVID-19 in a European Urban Area: Two Waves, Two Patterns. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):1256. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031256

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marí-Dell’Olmo, Marc, Mercè Gotsens, M I. Pasarín, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz, Lucía Artazcoz, Patricia Garcia de Olalla, Cristina Rius, and Carme Borrell. 2021. "Socioeconomic Inequalities in COVID-19 in a European Urban Area: Two Waves, Two Patterns" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 3: 1256. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031256

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