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Article

Sub-Clinical Effects of Outdoor Smoke in Affected Communities

1
School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne 3004, Australia
2
Environmental Health, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7000, Australia
3
Behaviour, Environment and Cognition Program, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne 3000, Australia
4
Climate Science Centre, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Aspendale 3195, Australia
5
Environmental Public Health Unit, Environment Protection Authority Victoria, Melbourne 3053, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal first authors.
Senior author.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031131
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 28 January 2021
Many Australians are intermittently exposed to landscape fire smoke from wildfires or planned (prescribed) burns. This study aimed to investigate effects of outdoor smoke from planned burns, wildfires and a coal mine fire by assessing biomarkers of inflammation in an exposed and predominantly older population. Participants were recruited from three communities in south-eastern Australia. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were continuously measured within these communities, with participants performing a range of health measures during and without a smoke event. Changes in biomarkers were examined in response to PM2.5 concentrations from outdoor smoke. Increased levels of FeNO (fractional exhaled nitric oxide) (β = 0.500 [95%CI 0.192 to 0.808] p < 0.001) at a 4 h lag were associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 levels from outdoor smoke, with effects also shown for wildfire smoke at 4, 12, 24 and 48-h lag periods and coal mine fire smoke at a 4 h lag. Total white cell (β = −0.088 [−0.171 to −0.006] p = 0.036) and neutrophil counts (β = −0.077 [−0.144 to −0.010] p = 0.024) declined in response to a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. However, exposure to outdoor smoke resulting from wildfires, planned burns and a coal mine fire was not found to affect other blood biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoke; PM2.5; landscape fire; bushfire; biomarkers; FeNO; neutrophils; white cell count smoke; PM2.5; landscape fire; bushfire; biomarkers; FeNO; neutrophils; white cell count
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MDPI and ACS Style

O’Dwyer, T.; Abramson, M.J.; Straney, L.; Salimi, F.; Johnston, F.; Wheeler, A.J.; O’Keeffe, D.; Haikerwal, A.; Reisen, F.; Hopper, I.; Dennekamp, M. Sub-Clinical Effects of Outdoor Smoke in Affected Communities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1131. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031131

AMA Style

O’Dwyer T, Abramson MJ, Straney L, Salimi F, Johnston F, Wheeler AJ, O’Keeffe D, Haikerwal A, Reisen F, Hopper I, Dennekamp M. Sub-Clinical Effects of Outdoor Smoke in Affected Communities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):1131. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031131

Chicago/Turabian Style

O’Dwyer, Thomas, Michael J. Abramson, Lahn Straney, Farhad Salimi, Fay Johnston, Amanda J. Wheeler, David O’Keeffe, Anjali Haikerwal, Fabienne Reisen, Ingrid Hopper, and Martine Dennekamp. 2021. "Sub-Clinical Effects of Outdoor Smoke in Affected Communities" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 3: 1131. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031131

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