Using Virtual Reality to Stimulate Healthy and Environmentally Friendly Food Consumption among Children: An Interview Study
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Design and Participants
2.4. The Interview Guide
2.5. Data Analysis
3.1. Pop-Up Message Content Was Well Recalled, but Understood Only from a Certain Age Onwards
“Well, the girl had black hair with a purple tail, and I don’t remember what her shoes looked like, or that she wasn’t wearing shoes. I don’t remember that”(Dutch girl, 8 years old).
“I’ve seen a lot of monkeys. Orangutans. Or at least, brown monkeys. And then it said: ‘this product is good or bad for the rainforest’”(Dutch girl, 10 years old).
3.2. With Understanding Came Rational and Especially Negative Emotional Responses
“Well, I thought, yes these are healthy, and these are not”(Dutch boy, 11 years old).
“With one I thought this is bad and with the other I thought this is good. [Interviewer: And why did you think that?] Because if the jungle breaks down, I will no longer have any jungle”(Dutch boy, 12 years old).
“I thought they [i.e., the dolls] were cute”(Dutch girl, 8 years old).
“Well, that I wouldn’t buy that product because I feel sorry for the monkeys. They live there too. And then <laughs> you actually demolish their house, and I don’t think you can do that”(Dutch girl, 13 years old).
3.3. Mixed Expectations about Encountering Pop-Ups in Real Life, but the Expected Behavioural Impact Is Positive
“Yes good. [Interviewer: And why?] Well, because then you know that this [product] can make you very fat and that [product] not”(Dutch boy, 11 years old).
“Good. [Interviewer: Good?] I do think that far fewer people then just buy [products]. [Interviewer: And why do you think that?] Well, because people end up like: ‘Yes, what I’m buying now is just bad’. And if it is not sold then it is no longer made”(Dutch girl, 11 years old).
“Cute too. Because monkeys are cute”(Dutch girl, 10 years old).
“Weird. [Interviewer: Why weird?] Ehm, because then suddenly out of nowhere I would encounter a picture with a monkey …”(Dutch girl, 8 years old).
“Yes, I think you better take this one [i.e., the slim doll] now because it is healthier”(Dutch boy, 11 years old).
“Oh yeah. [If I see] the first one, I’ll take it, and when I see the destroyed one [i.e., the destroyed rainforest], I’ll put it back”(Dutch boy, 9 years old).
4. Conclusions and Discussion
4.1. General Discussion
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Code Book
- Yes: Participant correctly described the text and/or graphics that was presented on the pop-ups.
- No: Participant did not (correctly) describe the text and/or graphics that was presented on the pop-ups.
- Yes: Based on the answer given, it was clear that the participant understood the message the pop-ups aimed to convey, i.e., the impact the consumption of the different food products on their health or the environment.
- No: Based on the answer given, it was clear that the participant did not understand the message the pop-ups aimed to convey.
- Feeling sorry
- Awareness of behavioural impact
- Pop-up increases awareness
- Pop-up might have a positive influence
- Likeability of visual part pop-up
- Peculiarity of the pop-up in real life
- Yes: Participant expected future decisions to be influenced by pop-up.
- No: Participant did not expect future decisions to be influenced by pop-up.
- Pop-up increases awareness of the environmental/health impact.
- World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2015; pp. 1–302. [Google Scholar]
- Thomas, C.D.; Cameron, A.; Green, R.E.; Bakkenes, M.; Beaumont, L.J.; Collingham, Y.C.; Erasmus, B.F.; De Siqueira, M.F.; Grainger, A.; Hannah, L.; et al. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 2004, 427, 145–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rosenfeld, D.; Lohmann, U.; Raga, G.B.; O’Dowd, C.D.; Kulmala, M.; Fuzzi, S.; Reissell, A.; Andreae, M.O. Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation? Science 2008, 321, 1309–1313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Weber, C.L.; Matthews, H.S. Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 3508–3513. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Jungbluth, N.; Tietje, O.; Scholz, R.W. Food Purchases: Impacts from the Consumers’ Point of View Investigated with a Modular LCA. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 2000, 5, 134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Boeing, H.; Bechthold, A.; Bub, A.; Ellinger, S.; Haller, D.; Kroke, A.; Leschik-Bonnet, E.; Müller, M.J.; Oberritter, H.; Schulze, M.; et al. Critical review: Vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur. J. Nutr. 2012, 51, 637–663. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hooper, L.; Abdelhamid, A.; Moore, H.J.; Douthwaite, W.; Skeaff, C.M.; Summerbell, C.D. Effect of reducing total fat intake on body weight: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ 2012, 345, e7666. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Vermeulen, S.J.; Campbell, B.M.; Ingram, J.S.I. Climate Change and Food Systems. Annu. Rev. Env. Resour. 2012, 37, 195–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Clark, M.A.; Springmann, M.; Hill, J.; Tilman, D. Multiple health and environmental impacts of foods. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2019, 116, 23357–23362. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Berridge, K.C. Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 1996, 20, 1–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cox, D.N.; Hendrie, G.A.; Carty, D. Sensitivity, hedonics and preferences for basic tastes and fat amongst adults and children of differing weight status: A comprehensive review. Food Qual. Prefer. 2016, 48, 359–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nicklaus, S.; Remy, E. Early Origins of Overeating: Tracking Between Early Food Habits and Later Eating Patterns. Curr. Obes. Rep. 2013, 2, 179–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Styne, D.M. Childhood and adolescent obesity: Prevalence and significance. Pediatric Clin. N. Am. 2001, 48, 823–854. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zur, I.; AKlöckner, C. Individual motivations for limiting meat consumption. Br. Food J. 2014, 116, 629–642. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mazar, A.; Tomaino, G.; Carmon, Z.; Wood, W. Sustaining Sustainability: Lessons Learned from the Psychology of Habits. PsyArXiv 2020, 1–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bleakley, A.; Jordan, A.; Mallya, G.; Hennessy, M.; Piotrowski, J.T. Do You Know What Your Kids Are Drinking? Evaluation of a Media Campaign to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Am. J. Health Promot. 2017, 32, 1409–1416. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Droog, S.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M. Using Brand Characters to Promote Young Children’s Liking of and Purchase Requests for Fruit. J. Health Commun. 2010, 16, 79–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kiili, K. Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. Internet High. Educ. 2005, 8, 13–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Roussou, M. Learning by doing and learning through play: An exploration of interactivity in virtual environments for children. ACM Comput. Entertain. 2004, 2, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nichols, S.; Haldane, C.; Wilson, J.R. Measurement of presence and its consequences in virtual environments. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 2000, 52, 471–491. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lenggenhager, B.; Tadi, T.; Metzinger, T.; Blanke, O. Video ergo sum: Manipulating bodily self-consciousness. Science 2007, 317, 1096–1099. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fiani, B.; De Stefano, F.; Kondilis, A.; Covarrubias, C.; Reier, L.; Sarhadi, K. Virtual Reality in Neurosurgery: Can You See It? A Review of the Current Applications and Future Potential. World Neurosurg. 2020, 141, 291–298. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Liu, B.; Wang, Z.; Song, G.; Wu, G. Cognitive processing of traffic signs in immersive virtual reality environment: An ERP study. Neurosci. Lett. 2010, 485, 43–48. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Coolahan, K.; Fantuzzo, J.; Mendez, J.; McDermott, P. Preschool peer interactions and readiness to learn: Relationships between classroom peer play and learning behaviours and conduct. J. Educ. Psychol. 2000, 92, 458–465. [Google Scholar]
- McWayne, C.M.; Fantuzzo, J.W.; McDermott, P.A. Preschool Competency in Context: An Investigation of the Unique Contribution of Child Competencies to Early Academic Success. Dev. Psychol. 2004, 40, 633–645. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ginsburg, K.R.; The Committee on Communications; The Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds. Pediatrics 2007, 119, 182–191. [Google Scholar]
- Oh, J.; Bellur, S.; Sundar, S.S. Clicking, Assessing, Immersing, and Sharing: An Empirical Model of User Engagement with Interactive Media. Commun. Res. 2015, 45, 737–763. [Google Scholar]
- Karkar, A.; Salahuddin, T.; Almaadeed, N.; Aljaam, J.M.; Halabi, O. A Virtual Reality Nutrition Awareness Learning System for Children. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE Conference on e-Learning, e-Management and e-Services (IC3e), Langkawi Island, Malaysia, 21–22 November 2018; IEEE: Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2018; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Markowitz, D.M.; Laha, R.; Perone, B.P.; Pea, R.D.; Bailenson, J.N. Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips Facilitate Learning About Climate Change. Front. Psychol. 2018, 9, 399–420. [Google Scholar]
- Fuentes, E.M.; Varela-Aldás, J.; Palacios-Navarro, G.; García-Magariño, I. Immersive Virtual Reality App to Promote Healthy Eating in Children. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19–24 July 2020; Stephanidis, C., Antona, M., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2020; Volume 1225, pp. 9–15. [Google Scholar]
- Zeinstra, G.G.; Koelen, M.A.; Kok, F.J. Cognitive development and children’s perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2007, 4, 30. [Google Scholar]
- Van der Laan, L.N.; Papies, E.K.; Ly, A.; Smeets, P.A. How health goal priming promotes healthy food choice: A virtual reality fMRI study. submitted for publication.
- Blom, S.; Gillebaart, M.; De Boer, F.; van der Laan, L.N.; De Ridder, D.T.T. Under pressure: Nudging increases healthy food choice in a supermarket environment, irrespective of system 1 reasoning. Appetite 2021, 160, 105116. [Google Scholar]
- Meijers, M.H.C.; Smit, E.S.; Karvonen, S.; De Wildt, K.; Van der Plas, D.; van der Laan, L.N. Stimulating Sustainable Food Choices Using Virtual Reality: Taking an Environmental vs. Health Communication Perspective on Enhancing Response Efficacy Beliefs. submitted for publication.
- Meijers, M.H.C.; Remmelswaal, P.; Wonneberger, A. Using Visual Impact Metaphors to Stimulate Environmentally Friendly Behaviour: The Roles of Response Efficacy and Evaluative Persuasion Knowledge. Environ. Commun. 2018, 13, 995–1008. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Guadalupe, G.A.; Lerma-García, M.J.; Fuentes, A.; Barat, J.M.; Bas, M.D.C.; Fernández-Segovia, I. Presence of palm oil in foodstuffs: Consumers’ perception. Br. Food J. 2019, 121, 2148–2162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koh, L.P.; Wilcove, D.S. Cashing in palm oil for conservation. Nature 2007, 448, 993–994. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Cacioppo, J.T.; Petty, R.E. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Adv. Consum. Res. 1984, 11, 673–675. [Google Scholar]
- Nikoloudakis, I.A.; Crutzen, R.; Rebar, A.L.; Vandelanotte, C.; Quester, P.; Dry, M.; Skuse, A.; Duncan, M.J.; Short, C.E. Can you elaborate on that? Addressing participants’ need for cognition in computer-tailored health behaviour interventions. Health Psychol. Rev. 2018, 12, 437–452. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gale, N.K.; Heath, G.; Cameron, E.; Rashid, S.; Redwood, S. Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 2013, 13, 117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Campbell, J.L.; Quincy, C.; Osserman, J.; Pedersen, O.K. Coding In-depth Semistructured Interviews. Sociol. Methods Res. 2013, 42, 294–320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lombard, M.; Duch, J.S.; Bracken, C.C. Content Analysis in Mass Communication: Assessment and Reporting of Intercoder Reliability. Hum. Commun. Res. 2002, 28, 587–604. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anderson, I.H.; Hughes, B.O.; Dixon, W.R. Age of learning to read and its relation to sex, intelligence, and reading achievement in the sixth grade. J. Educ. Res. 1956, 49, 447–454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sierra Rativa, A.; Postma, M.; van Zaanen, M. Can virtual reality act as an affective machine? The wild animal embodiment experience and the importance of appearance. Proc. MIT LINC 2020, 3, 214–223. [Google Scholar]
- Charbonnier, L.; van Meer, F.; van der Laan, L.N.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M. Standardized food images: A photographing protocol and image database. Appetite 2016, 96, 166–173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ahn, S.J.G.; Fox, J.; Dale, K.R.; Avant, J.A. Framing Virtual Experiences. Commun. Res. 2013, 42, 839–863. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Vries, H.; Mudde, A.; Leijs, I.; Charlton, A.; Vartiainen, E.; Buijs, G.; Clemente, M.P.; Storm, H.; Navarro, A.G.; Nebot, M.; et al. The European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (EFSA): An example of integral prevention. Health Educ. Res. 2003, 18, 611–626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers participating in an Internet-based multiple computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention. Addict. Behav. 2014, 39, 1318–1324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Fitzgerald, A.; Heary, C.; Kelly, C.; Nixon, E.; Shevlin, M. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and peer support for unhealthy eating are associated with adolescents’ food intake patterns. Appetite 2013, 63, 48–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smink, A.R.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; van Noort, G.; Neijens, P.C. Shopping in augmented reality: The effects of spatial presence, personalization and intrusiveness on app and brand responses. J. Bus. Res. 2020, 118, 474–485. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Ruijter, D.; Smit, E.S.; de Vries, H.; Goossens, L.; Hoving, C. Understanding Dutch practice nurses’ adherence to evidence-based smoking cessation guidelines and their needs for web-based adherence support: Results from semistructured interviews. BMJ Open 2017, 7, e014154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Smit, E.S.; Meijers, M.H.C.; van der Laan, L.N. Using Virtual Reality to Stimulate Healthy and Environmentally Friendly Food Consumption among Children: An Interview Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1088. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031088
Smit ES, Meijers MHC, van der Laan LN. Using Virtual Reality to Stimulate Healthy and Environmentally Friendly Food Consumption among Children: An Interview Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):1088. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031088Chicago/Turabian Style
Smit, Eline Suzanne, Marijn Hendrika Catharina Meijers, and Laura Nynke van der Laan. 2021. "Using Virtual Reality to Stimulate Healthy and Environmentally Friendly Food Consumption among Children: An Interview Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 3: 1088. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031088