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Concept Paper

Electrophoretic Determination of Trimethylamine (TMA) in Biological Samples as a Novel Potential Biomarker of Cardiovascular Diseases Methodological Approach

1
Department of Experimental Physiology and Pathophysiology, Laboratory of Centre for Preclinical Research, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis, Institute of Sport—National Research Institute, 01-879 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Centre for Preclinical Research and Technology (CePT), Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1B, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Sport, Institute of Physical Culture, Kazimierz Wielki University, 85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland
5
Department of Measurement and Electronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, 02-106 Kraków, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tadeusz Ambrozy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312318
Received: 14 September 2021 / Revised: 5 November 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 23 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Sports Implications for Training, Environment and Health)
In competitive athletes, the differential diagnosis between nonpathological changes in cardiac morphology associated with training (commonly referred to as “athlete’s heart”) and certain cardiac diseases with the potential for sudden death is an important and not uncommon clinical problem. The use of noninvasive, fast, and cheap analytical techniques can help in making diagnostic differentiation and planning subsequent clinical strategies. Recent studies have demonstrated the role of gut microbiota and their metabolites in the onset and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Trimethylamine (TMA), a gut bacteria metabolite consisting of carnitine and choline, has recently emerged as a potentially toxic molecule to the circulatory system. The present work aims to develop a simple and cost-effective capillary electrophoresis-based method for the determination of TMA in biological samples. Analytical characteristics of the proposed method were evaluated through the study of its linearity (R2 > 0.9950) and the limit of detection and quantification (LOD = 1.2 µg/mL; LOQ = 3.6 µg/mL). The method shows great potential in high-throughput screening applications for TMA analysis in biological samples as a novel potential biomarker of cardiovascular diseases. The proposed electrophoretic method for the determination of TMA in biological samples from patients with cardiac disease is now in progress. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular diseases in athletes; biomarkers; determination of trimethylamine (TMA); capillary electrophoresis (CE) cardiovascular diseases in athletes; biomarkers; determination of trimethylamine (TMA); capillary electrophoresis (CE)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Konop, M.; Rybka, M.; Waraksa, E.; Laskowska, A.K.; Nowiński, A.; Grzywacz, T.; Karwowski, W.J.; Drapała, A.; Kłodzińska, E.M. Electrophoretic Determination of Trimethylamine (TMA) in Biological Samples as a Novel Potential Biomarker of Cardiovascular Diseases Methodological Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312318

AMA Style

Konop M, Rybka M, Waraksa E, Laskowska AK, Nowiński A, Grzywacz T, Karwowski WJ, Drapała A, Kłodzińska EM. Electrophoretic Determination of Trimethylamine (TMA) in Biological Samples as a Novel Potential Biomarker of Cardiovascular Diseases Methodological Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(23):12318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312318

Chicago/Turabian Style

Konop, Marek, Mateusz Rybka, Emilia Waraksa, Anna K. Laskowska, Artur Nowiński, Tomasz Grzywacz, Wojciech J. Karwowski, Adrian Drapała, and Ewa Maria Kłodzińska. 2021. "Electrophoretic Determination of Trimethylamine (TMA) in Biological Samples as a Novel Potential Biomarker of Cardiovascular Diseases Methodological Approach" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 23: 12318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312318

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