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Article

Those Who Have Continuing Radiation Anxiety Show High Psychological Distress in Cases of High Post-Traumatic Stress: The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

1
Department of Public Health, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
2
Sendai City Mental Health and Welfare Center, Sendai 980-0845, Japan
3
Department of Radiation Health Management, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
4
Department of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8606, Japan
5
Department of Health Informatics, School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
6
Toho University, Tokyo 143-8540, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212048
Received: 12 October 2021 / Revised: 12 November 2021 / Accepted: 15 November 2021 / Published: 17 November 2021
Background: this cross-sectional study aimed to clarify the associations among media utilization, lifestyles, and the strong radiation anxiety that has persisted 9 years after the 2011 nuclear accident. Moreover, the relationships among psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, and strong radiation anxiety were examined. Methods: for the multivariate regression analysis, the independent variables were radiation anxiety at the time of the accident and the current status, categorized as “continuing/emerging strong radiation anxiety”. Media utilization (local, national, internet, and public broadcasts, and public relations information) and lifestyle variables (sleep quality, regular exercise, and drinking habits) were set as the dependent variables. Moreover, the psychological distress of residents with continuing/emerging strong radiation anxiety was examined by an analysis of covariance stratified by post-traumatic stress. Result: there was no significant association between lifestyle variables and media utilization, except for local media (OR: 0.435, 95% CI: 0.21–0.90). Conversely, significantly high psychological distress was confirmed among residents with continuing/emerging radiation anxiety. The K6 score, representing psychological distress, for those with higher post-traumatic stress was 12.63; for those with lower post-traumatic stress, it was 5.13 (p = 0.004). Conclusions: residents with continuing/emerging strong radiation anxiety showed high psychological distress, which has been strengthened by higher post-traumatic stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychological distress; post-traumatic stress; anxiety; media; Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident psychological distress; post-traumatic stress; anxiety; media; Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident
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MDPI and ACS Style

Orui, M.; Nakayama, C.; Moriyama, N.; Tsubokura, M.; Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Sugita, M.; Yasumura, S. Those Who Have Continuing Radiation Anxiety Show High Psychological Distress in Cases of High Post-Traumatic Stress: The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212048

AMA Style

Orui M, Nakayama C, Moriyama N, Tsubokura M, Watanabe K, Nakayama T, Sugita M, Yasumura S. Those Who Have Continuing Radiation Anxiety Show High Psychological Distress in Cases of High Post-Traumatic Stress: The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22):12048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212048

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orui, Masatsugu, Chihiro Nakayama, Nobuaki Moriyama, Masaharu Tsubokura, Kiyotaka Watanabe, Takeo Nakayama, Minoru Sugita, and Seiji Yasumura. 2021. "Those Who Have Continuing Radiation Anxiety Show High Psychological Distress in Cases of High Post-Traumatic Stress: The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 22: 12048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212048

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