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Article

Fluoride Exposure through Different Drinking Water Sources in a Contaminated Basin in Guanajuato, Mexico: A Deterministic Human Health Risk Assessment

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Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad No. 655, Colonia Santa María Ahuacatitlán, Cuernavaca 62100, Mexico
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Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato 36050, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Peter Knappett and Taehyun Roh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111490
Received: 26 July 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 31 October 2021
Water fluoride levels above the World Health Organization’s guideline (1.5 mg/L), common in overexploited aquifers, represent a health hazard. Our objective was to assess the health risks posed by exposure to fluoride in different drinking water sources in a contaminated basin in Mexico. Fluoride was measured in mutual drinking water sources and in the urine of 39 children and women. Risks were estimated through hazard quotient (HQ) by drinking water source. Dental fluorosis was assessed in the children. Mean fluoride water concentrations (mg/L) were: well, 4.2; waterhole, 2.7; bottled, 2.1; rainwater, 0.4. The mean urinary fluoride concentrations (specific gravity adjusted) were 2.1 mg/L and 3.2 mg/L in children and women, respectively. Our multiple linear regression model showed children’s urinary fluoride concentrations increased 0.96 mg/L for every 1 mg/L increase in water fluoride (p < 0.001). Dental fluorosis was diagnosed in 82% of the children, and their HQ according to drinking water source was: well, 1.5; waterhole, 1.1; bottled, 0.8; harvested rainwater, 0.3. The pervasive dental fluorosis indicates a toxic past fluoride exposure; urinary fluoride levels and HQs indicate high exposure and current health risks for most children. Drinking harvested rainwater will likely prevent most of the local fluoride exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluoride; fluorosis; geogenic; groundwater; aquifer; risk assessment; Guanajuato; Mexico fluoride; fluorosis; geogenic; groundwater; aquifer; risk assessment; Guanajuato; Mexico
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farías, P.; Estevez-García, J.A.; Onofre-Pardo, E.N.; Pérez-Humara, M.L.; Rojas-Lima, E.; Álamo-Hernández, U.; Rocha-Amador, D.O. Fluoride Exposure through Different Drinking Water Sources in a Contaminated Basin in Guanajuato, Mexico: A Deterministic Human Health Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11490. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111490

AMA Style

Farías P, Estevez-García JA, Onofre-Pardo EN, Pérez-Humara ML, Rojas-Lima E, Álamo-Hernández U, Rocha-Amador DO. Fluoride Exposure through Different Drinking Water Sources in a Contaminated Basin in Guanajuato, Mexico: A Deterministic Human Health Risk Assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11490. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111490

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farías, Paulina, Jesús A. Estevez-García, Erika N. Onofre-Pardo, María L. Pérez-Humara, Elodia Rojas-Lima, Urinda Álamo-Hernández, and Diana O. Rocha-Amador. 2021. "Fluoride Exposure through Different Drinking Water Sources in a Contaminated Basin in Guanajuato, Mexico: A Deterministic Human Health Risk Assessment" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11490. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111490

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