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Article

Co-Occurrence of Metal Contaminants in United States Public Water Systems in 2013–2015

1
Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
2
National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Peter Knappett and Taehyun Roh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157884
Received: 16 June 2021 / Revised: 19 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
The United States Environmental Protection Agency monitors contaminants in drinking water and consolidates these results in the National Contaminant Occurrence Database. Our objective was to assess the co-occurrence of metal contaminants (total chromium, hexavalent chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, cobalt, and strontium) over the years 2013–2015. We used multilevel Tobit regression models with state and water system-level random intercepts to predict the geometric mean of each contaminant occurring in each public water system, and estimated the pairwise correlations of predicted water system-specific geometric means across contaminants. We found that the geometric means of vanadium and total chromium were positively correlated both in large public water systems (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and in small public water systems (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). Further research may address the cumulative human health impacts of ingesting more than one contaminant in drinking water. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental monitoring; co-occurrence; environmental exposure environmental monitoring; co-occurrence; environmental exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thompson, A.K.; Monti, M.M.; Gribble, M.O. Co-Occurrence of Metal Contaminants in United States Public Water Systems in 2013–2015. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7884. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157884

AMA Style

Thompson AK, Monti MM, Gribble MO. Co-Occurrence of Metal Contaminants in United States Public Water Systems in 2013–2015. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):7884. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157884

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thompson, Alesha K., Michele M. Monti, and Matthew O. Gribble. 2021. "Co-Occurrence of Metal Contaminants in United States Public Water Systems in 2013–2015" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 7884. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157884

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