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Article

A Vegan Diet Is Associated with a Significant Reduction in Dietary Acid Load: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Individuals

1
Centre for Complementary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
2
Medical Center, Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry and Metabolism, Department of General Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mauro Lombardo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 9998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18199998
Received: 9 August 2021 / Revised: 15 September 2021 / Accepted: 17 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Plant-Based Diets on Human Health and the Environment)
The composition of diet strongly affects acid–base homeostasis. Western diets abundant in acidogenic foods (meat and cheese) and deficient in alkalizing foods (fruits and vegetables) increase dietary acid load (DAL). A high DAL has been associated with numerous health repercussions, including cardiovascular disease and type-2-diabetes. Plant-based diets have been associated with a lower DAL; however, the number of trials exploring this association is limited. This randomized-controlled trial sought to examine whether an isocaloric vegan diet lowers DAL as compared to a meat-rich diet. Forty-five omnivorous individuals were randomly assigned to a vegan diet (n = 23) or a meat-rich diet (n = 22) for 4 weeks. DAL was determined using potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores at baseline and after 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. After 3 weeks, median PRAL (−23.57 (23.87)) and mean NEAPR (12.85 ± 19.71) scores were significantly lower in the vegan group than in the meat-rich group (PRAL: 18.78 (21.04) and NEAPR: 60.93 ± 15.51, respectively). Effects were mediated by a lower phosphorus and protein intake in the vegan group. Our study suggests that a vegan diet is a potential means to reduce DAL, whereas a meat-rich diet substantially increases the DAL burden. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegan; plant-based; vegetarian; nutrition; dietary acid load; potential renal acid load; net endogenous acid production; diet; meat; health vegan; plant-based; vegetarian; nutrition; dietary acid load; potential renal acid load; net endogenous acid production; diet; meat; health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Müller, A.; Zimmermann-Klemd, A.M.; Lederer, A.-K.; Hannibal, L.; Kowarschik, S.; Huber, R.; Storz, M.A. A Vegan Diet Is Associated with a Significant Reduction in Dietary Acid Load: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Individuals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9998. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18199998

AMA Style

Müller A, Zimmermann-Klemd AM, Lederer A-K, Hannibal L, Kowarschik S, Huber R, Storz MA. A Vegan Diet Is Associated with a Significant Reduction in Dietary Acid Load: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Individuals. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(19):9998. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18199998

Chicago/Turabian Style

Müller, Alexander, Amy Marisa Zimmermann-Klemd, Ann-Kathrin Lederer, Luciana Hannibal, Stefanie Kowarschik, Roman Huber, and Maximilian Andreas Storz. 2021. "A Vegan Diet Is Associated with a Significant Reduction in Dietary Acid Load: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Individuals" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 19: 9998. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18199998

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