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Article

Epidemiological Study of Violence against Children and Its Increase during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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Pediatric Department, Jundiaí Medical School, Jundiaí 13202-550, Brazil
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Pediatric Emergency Service Manager, University Hospital, Jundiaí Medical School, Jundiaí 13207-450, Brazil
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Research Center, Sírio-Libanês Teaching and Research Institute, São Paulo 01308-060, Brazil
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Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of Dentistry (FOB/USP), University of São Paulo, Bauru 17012-901, Brazil
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Graduate Program in Anatomy of Domestic and Wild Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo (FMVZ/USP), São Paulo 05508-270, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Structural and Functional Interactions in Rehabilitation, Postgraduate Department, University of Marilia (UNIMAR), Marília 17525-902, Brazil
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Department of Human Anatomy and Neuroanatomy, Medical School, University Center of Adamantina (UniFAI), Adamantina 17800-000, Brazil
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Morphology Department, Jundiaí Medical School, Jundiaí 13202-550, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Waldhör and Ko-Ling Chan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910061
Received: 16 July 2021 / Revised: 20 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 24 September 2021
The aim of this study was to identify the epidemiological profiles of violence against children, victims, and their aggressors, and their correlations between socioeconomic and demographic factors analyzed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective observational study based on a review of Individual Notification Forms from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, including child victims of violence, under 18 years, assisted by a pediatric emergency service in Brazil, from 2016–2020. Data were stratified, then statistical analysis was performed using the two-proportion equality test and the Chi-square test, with p < 0.05 and a 95% confidence interval. A total of 609 notifications were analyzed and a prevalence of sexual violence (63.2%) was reported. The prevalent profile of victim was female (76.7%), aged between 2–9 years (38.1%) and 14–18 years (35.6%). The violence occurs in the victim’s home (58.9%). The prevalent profile of perpetrator was male (82.4%), young adolescent (59.2%), living as family (64%), mainly the parents (18.4%). No correlation was found between the classified socioeconomic and demographic variables and violence. There was an increase in notifications during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to the same period in the previous year; self-harm was reported in 59.7% of physical violence in 2020. Prevalence of sexual violence was higher for females, aged between 2–9 and 14–18 years, victimized in their homes, by male offenders, living as family, mainly by their parents. No association was found between child violence and the socioeconomic and demographic. View Full-Text
Keywords: child abuse; exposure to violence; self-destructive behavior; risk factors; emergency hospital service; COVID-19 pandemic child abuse; exposure to violence; self-destructive behavior; risk factors; emergency hospital service; COVID-19 pandemic
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Oliveira, S.M.T.; Galdeano, E.A.; da Trindade, E.M.G.G.; Fernandez, R.S.; Buchaim, R.L.; Buchaim, D.V.; da Cunha, M.R.; Passos, S.D. Epidemiological Study of Violence against Children and Its Increase during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10061. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910061

AMA Style

de Oliveira SMT, Galdeano EA, da Trindade EMGG, Fernandez RS, Buchaim RL, Buchaim DV, da Cunha MR, Passos SD. Epidemiological Study of Violence against Children and Its Increase during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(19):10061. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910061

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Oliveira, Stela M.T., Ewerton A. Galdeano, Evelynne M.G.G. da Trindade, Rafael S. Fernandez, Rogerio L. Buchaim, Daniela V. Buchaim, Marcelo R. da Cunha, and Saulo D. Passos 2021. "Epidemiological Study of Violence against Children and Its Increase during the COVID-19 Pandemic" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 19: 10061. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910061

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