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Article

Quantifying Coordination between Agonist and Antagonist Elbow Muscles during Backhand Crosscourt Shots in Adult Female Squash Players

1
Faculty of Physical Education-Abo Qir, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21913, Egypt
2
Department of Sports Training, Faculty of Sports Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
3
Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Filipe Manuel Clemente and Ana Filipa Silva
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189825
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 14 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Sports and Exercise: From Health to Sports Performance)
The purpose of this study was to quantify the coordination between agonist and antagonist elbow muscles during squash backhand crosscourt shots in adult female players. Ten right-handed, international-level, female squash players participated in the study. The electrical muscle activity of two right elbow agonist/antagonist muscles, the biceps brachii and triceps brachii, were recorded using a surface EMG system, and processed using the integrated EMG to calculate a co-activation index (CoI) for the preparation phase, the execution phase, and the follow-through phase. A significant effect of the phases on the CoI was observed. Co-activation was significantly different between the follow-through and the execution phase (45.93 ± 6.00% and 30.14 ± 4.11%, p < 0.001), and also between the preparation and the execution phase (44.74 ± 9.88% and 30.14 ± 4.11%, p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between the preparation and the follow-through phase (p = 0.953). In conclusion, the co-activation of the elbow muscles varies within the squash backhand crosscourt shots. The highest level of co-activation was observed in the preparation phase and the lowest level of co-activation was observed during the execution. The co-activation index could be a useful method for the interpretation of elbow muscle co-activity during a squash backhand crosscourt shot. View Full-Text
Keywords: racket sport; injury; elbow; electromyography; co-activation racket sport; injury; elbow; electromyography; co-activation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akl, A.-R.; Hassan, A.; Elgizawy, H.; Tilp, M. Quantifying Coordination between Agonist and Antagonist Elbow Muscles during Backhand Crosscourt Shots in Adult Female Squash Players. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189825

AMA Style

Akl A-R, Hassan A, Elgizawy H, Tilp M. Quantifying Coordination between Agonist and Antagonist Elbow Muscles during Backhand Crosscourt Shots in Adult Female Squash Players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189825

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akl, Abdel-Rahman, Amr Hassan, Helal Elgizawy, and Markus Tilp. 2021. "Quantifying Coordination between Agonist and Antagonist Elbow Muscles during Backhand Crosscourt Shots in Adult Female Squash Players" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189825

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