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Article

Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Human Breast Milk from Industrial/Mining and Agricultural Zones of Southeastern Spain

1
Department of Toxicology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, Faculty of Veterinary, Campus of Espinardo, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2
Department of Legal and Forensic Medicine, Biomedical Research Institute (IMIB), Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
3
Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus of Espinardo, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179289
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 30 August 2021 / Published: 2 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Threads in Environmental Toxicology)
Human breast milk is the most complete foodstuff for infants but can also be a potential source of exposure to toxic chemicals. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of metal pollution in the breast milk of women living in agricultural and industrial/mining areas of the Region of Murcia (Spain) that are well known for their cases of environmental pollution. Human milk samples were collected from 50 mothers and inorganic contaminants were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean or maximum concentrations of the different inorganic elements analyzed in breast milk, with the exception of manganese, exceeded the maximum limits established by the WHO and could constitute a high risk for pregnant mothers and their children. The breast milk of women living in the industrial/mining zone presented the highest levels of aluminum, zinc, arsenic, lead, mercury and nickel. On the contrary, the highest concentrations of manganese, chromium and iron were determined in the milk of women living in the agricultural zone. These results suggested and confirmed different profiles of environmental contamination of these areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: human breast milk; inorganic compounds; heavy metals; trace elements; environmental pollution human breast milk; inorganic compounds; heavy metals; trace elements; environmental pollution
MDPI and ACS Style

Motas, M.; Jiménez, S.; Oliva, J.; Cámara, M.Á.; Pérez-Cárceles, M.D. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Human Breast Milk from Industrial/Mining and Agricultural Zones of Southeastern Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9289. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179289

AMA Style

Motas M, Jiménez S, Oliva J, Cámara MÁ, Pérez-Cárceles MD. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Human Breast Milk from Industrial/Mining and Agricultural Zones of Southeastern Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):9289. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179289

Chicago/Turabian Style

Motas, Miguel, Sandra Jiménez, José Oliva, Miguel Á. Cámara, and María D. Pérez-Cárceles. 2021. "Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Human Breast Milk from Industrial/Mining and Agricultural Zones of Southeastern Spain" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 9289. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179289

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