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Article

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Inconsistency between Self-Response and Urine Cotinine Biomarker Based on Korean National Data during 2009–2018

by 1 and 2,*
1
Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA), Wonju 26465, Korea
2
Department of Gerontology Health and Welfare, Pai Chai University, Daejeon 35345, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dorota Kaleta, Kinga Polanska, Joanna Jurewicz, Carl A. Latkin and David L. Ashley
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179284
Received: 18 June 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 2 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Health Risk)
This study aimed to estimate the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure using urinary cotinine (UCo) to prove that the SHS exposure could not be properly assessed by self-reporting (SR). In total, 28,574 nonsmokers aged >19 years were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2009–2018). First, changes in the annual concentration of UCo were analyzed, and the annual SHS exposure rates were measured based on SR and UCo from 2009 to 2018. Then, the average UCo concentration and UCo-measured SHS exposure rate were confirmed according to the subjects’ characteristics. Finally, factors associated with the UCo-measured SHS exposure rate were identified based on multiple regression analysis. The findings showed that the annual UCo concentrations and self-reported SHS exposure rates dropped significantly over the past decade. In contrast, the UCo-measured SHS exposure rate indicated that >80% of nonsmokers are still exposed to SHS. Moreover, we found vulnerable groups using UCo-measured SHS exposure rate. In particular, the self-reported SHS exposure at home and in workplaces and house type was highly associated with SHS exposure. Thus, these findings indicate that the actual SHS exposure could not be properly assessed by SR and should be verified using a biomarker, such as UCo. Considering that even a short-term exposure can be harmful to health, the goal of the policy should be to keep cotinine concentration as low as possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondhand smoke; thirdhand smoke; biomarker; cotinine; nonsmokers; Korea secondhand smoke; thirdhand smoke; biomarker; cotinine; nonsmokers; Korea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sim, B.; Park, M.-B. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Inconsistency between Self-Response and Urine Cotinine Biomarker Based on Korean National Data during 2009–2018. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9284. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179284

AMA Style

Sim B, Park M-B. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Inconsistency between Self-Response and Urine Cotinine Biomarker Based on Korean National Data during 2009–2018. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):9284. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sim, Boram, and Myung-Bae Park. 2021. "Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Inconsistency between Self-Response and Urine Cotinine Biomarker Based on Korean National Data during 2009–2018" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 9284. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179284

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