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Estimation of Benchmark Dose of Cumulative Cadmium Exposure for Renal Tubular Effect
Article

The Relationship between the Urinary Cadmium Concentration and Cause-Specific Mortality in Subjects without Severe Renal Damage: A 35-Year Follow-Up Study in a Cadmium-Polluted Area of Japan

1
Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
2
Health Evaluation Center, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
3
Department of Occupation and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
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Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
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School of Nursing, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
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School of Health Sciences, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-0942, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157747
Received: 17 June 2021 / Revised: 17 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cadmium, Environmental Exposure and Health Outcomes)
We evaluated the association between urinary cadmium concentration (uCd, μg/g Cr) and risk of cause-specific mortality according to urinary β2-microglobulin (MG) concentration. Participants were 1383 male and 1700 female inhabitants of the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin. The uCd and β2-MG were evaluated in a survey in 1981–1982, where those participants were followed-up over 35 years later. Among the participants with a urinary β2-MG < 1000, the hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval) for mortality were significantly higher in those with a uCd of ≥10.0 compared with <5.0 for cardiovascular disease [HR 1.92 (1.08–3.40) for men, 1.71 (1.07–2.71) for women], pneumonia or influenza [2.10 (1.10–4.00) for men, 2.22 (1.17–4.19) for women], and digestive diseases [for men; 3.81 (1.49–9.74)]. The uCd was significantly associated with mortality from heart failure in women and digestive diseases in men, after adjustment for other causes of death using the Fine and Gray competing risk regression model. For participants with a urinary β2-MG of ≥1000, no significant association was observed between uCd and any major cause of death. In the absence of kidney damage, Cd may increase the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, pneumonia, and digestive diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: urinary cadmium; renal tubular dysfunction; mortality; cohort study urinary cadmium; renal tubular dysfunction; mortality; cohort study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakurai, M.; Suwazono, Y.; Nishijo, M.; Nogawa, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Yoneda, K.; Ishizaki, M.; Morikawa, Y.; Kido, T.; Nakagawa, H. The Relationship between the Urinary Cadmium Concentration and Cause-Specific Mortality in Subjects without Severe Renal Damage: A 35-Year Follow-Up Study in a Cadmium-Polluted Area of Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7747. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157747

AMA Style

Sakurai M, Suwazono Y, Nishijo M, Nogawa K, Watanabe Y, Yoneda K, Ishizaki M, Morikawa Y, Kido T, Nakagawa H. The Relationship between the Urinary Cadmium Concentration and Cause-Specific Mortality in Subjects without Severe Renal Damage: A 35-Year Follow-Up Study in a Cadmium-Polluted Area of Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):7747. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157747

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakurai, Masaru, Yasushi Suwazono, Muneko Nishijo, Kazuhiro Nogawa, Yuuka Watanabe, Kazuka Yoneda, Masao Ishizaki, Yuko Morikawa, Teruhiko Kido, and Hideaki Nakagawa. 2021. "The Relationship between the Urinary Cadmium Concentration and Cause-Specific Mortality in Subjects without Severe Renal Damage: A 35-Year Follow-Up Study in a Cadmium-Polluted Area of Japan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 7747. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157747

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