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Review

Climate Change, Weather, Housing Precarity, and Homelessness: A Systematic Review of Reviews

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Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
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Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
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Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
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Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
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Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada
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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada
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School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia
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Department of Social Work, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
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Department of Geography, Memorial University Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL A1C 5S7, Canada
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Faculty of Education, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kate Frazer, Thilo Kroll and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5812; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115812
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 8 May 2021 / Accepted: 26 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Homelessness)
This systematic review of reviews was conducted to examine housing precarity and homelessness in relation to climate change and weather extremes internationally. In a thematic analysis of 15 reviews (5 systematic and 10 non-systematic), the following themes emerged: risk factors for homelessness/housing precarity, temperature extremes, health concerns, structural factors, natural disasters, and housing. First, an increased risk of homelessness has been found for people who are vulnerably housed and populations in lower socio-economic positions due to energy insecurity and climate change-induced natural hazards. Second, homeless/vulnerably-housed populations are disproportionately exposed to climatic events (temperature extremes and natural disasters). Third, the physical and mental health of homeless/vulnerably-housed populations is projected to be impacted by weather extremes and climate change. Fourth, while green infrastructure may have positive effects for homeless/vulnerably-housed populations, housing remains a major concern in urban environments. Finally, structural changes must be implemented. Recommendations for addressing the impact of climate change on homelessness and housing precarity were generated, including interventions focusing on homelessness/housing precarity and reducing the effects of weather extremes, improved housing and urban planning, and further research on homelessness/housing precarity and climate change. To further enhance the impact of these initiatives, we suggest employing the Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA). View Full-Text
Keywords: homeless; housing; climate; weather; review; health homeless; housing; climate; weather; review; health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bezgrebelna, M.; McKenzie, K.; Wells, S.; Ravindran, A.; Kral, M.; Christensen, J.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Gaetz, S.; Kidd, S.A. Climate Change, Weather, Housing Precarity, and Homelessness: A Systematic Review of Reviews. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115812

AMA Style

Bezgrebelna M, McKenzie K, Wells S, Ravindran A, Kral M, Christensen J, Stergiopoulos V, Gaetz S, Kidd SA. Climate Change, Weather, Housing Precarity, and Homelessness: A Systematic Review of Reviews. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bezgrebelna, Mariya, Kwame McKenzie, Samantha Wells, Arun Ravindran, Michael Kral, Julia Christensen, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Stephen Gaetz, and Sean A. Kidd 2021. "Climate Change, Weather, Housing Precarity, and Homelessness: A Systematic Review of Reviews" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115812

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