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Article

Exploring the Impact of COVID-19 Response on Population Health in Saudi Arabia: Results from the “Sharik” Health Indicators Surveillance System during 2020

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Sharik Association for Health Research, Riyadh 13326, Saudi Arabia
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College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia
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Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Riyadh 13513, Saudi Arabia
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Ministry of Health, Riyadh 11176, Saudi Arabia
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College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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College of Pharmacy, King Faisal University, AlAhsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
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Center for Complex Engineering Systems, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh 12354, Saudi Arabia
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King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Liver Transplant Unit, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia
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Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Riccardo Polosa, Pietro Ferrara, Luciana Albano and Venera Tomaselli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105291
Received: 4 April 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 16 May 2021
Background: Although some studies have explored the effects of responses to COVID-19 on mortality, there are limited data on their effects on more immediate health risk factors and the trends of chronic diseases. Objective: To explore the prevalence of some behavioral health risk factors, intermediate risk factors, and chronic diseases at different timepoints during 2020 using the data available from a currently used surveillance system in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study undertook a secondary analysis of data from the Sharik Health Indicators Surveillance System (SHISS). The SHISS employs short cross-sectional phone interviews, conducted in all 13 administrative regions of Saudi Arabia on a quarterly basis. Each interview lasts approximately 4 min and is conducted by a trained data collector. The SHISS collects demographic data, as well as data on the major behavioral and intermediate chronic disease risk factors and the major chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases. Results: Of the 44,782 potential participants contacted in 2020, 30,134 completed the interview, with a response rate of 67.29%. Out of the total participants, 51.2% were female. The mean age was 36.5. The behavioral risk factors in this period exhibited significant changes compared to those in the first quarter (Q1) of 2020, when there were no significant restrictions on daily activities. These significant changes are related to reductions in fruit and vegetable intake (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.23) and physical activity (AOR, 0.483), and a significant increase in e-cigarette use (AOR 1.531). In terms of the intermediate risk factors observed in the SHISS, significant increases in hypercholesterolemia (AOR, 1.225) and hypertension (AOR, 1.190) were observed. Finally, heart disease (AOR, 1.279) and diabetes (AOR, 1.138) displayed significant increases compared to Q1. Conclusions: This study shows some evidence of the impact of responses to COVID-19 on the health of the population in Saudi Arabia. Significant reductions in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, and significant increases in e-cigarette use, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia may increase the burden of chronic diseases in Saudi Arabia in the near future. Thus, continuous monitoring of the health risk factors within the population, and early interventions, are recommended to prevent future increases in chronic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: population health; Saudi Arabia; COVID-19; surveillance; risk factors; chronic diseases population health; Saudi Arabia; COVID-19; surveillance; risk factors; chronic diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

BinDhim, N.F.; Althumiri, N.A.; Basyouni, M.H.; AlMousa, N.; AlJuwaysim, M.F.; Alhakbani, A.; Alrashed, N.; Almahmoud, E.; AlAloula, R.; Alqahtani, S.A. Exploring the Impact of COVID-19 Response on Population Health in Saudi Arabia: Results from the “Sharik” Health Indicators Surveillance System during 2020. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5291. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105291

AMA Style

BinDhim NF, Althumiri NA, Basyouni MH, AlMousa N, AlJuwaysim MF, Alhakbani A, Alrashed N, Almahmoud E, AlAloula R, Alqahtani SA. Exploring the Impact of COVID-19 Response on Population Health in Saudi Arabia: Results from the “Sharik” Health Indicators Surveillance System during 2020. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5291. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105291

Chicago/Turabian Style

BinDhim, Nasser F.; Althumiri, Nora A.; Basyouni, Mada H.; AlMousa, Norah; AlJuwaysim, Mohammed F.; Alhakbani, Alanoud; Alrashed, Najat; Almahmoud, Elaf; AlAloula, Rawan; Alqahtani, Saleh A. 2021. "Exploring the Impact of COVID-19 Response on Population Health in Saudi Arabia: Results from the “Sharik” Health Indicators Surveillance System during 2020" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 10: 5291. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105291

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