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Article

Space-Time Dependence of Emotions on Twitter after a Natural Disaster

1
State Office of Health and Social Affairs, 10639 Berlin, Germany
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Centre for Information Management, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
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Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
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Department for Methodology and Research Infrastructure, Robert Koch-Institut, 13359 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
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School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA
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Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
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Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lennart Reifels and Michel Dückers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105292
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 8 May 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 16 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Mental Health Risk Reduction)
Natural disasters can have significant consequences for population mental health. Using a digital spatial epidemiologic approach, this study documents emotional changes over space and time in the context of a large-scale disaster. Our aims were to (a) explore the spatial distribution of negative emotional expressions of Twitter users before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy in New York City (NYC) in 2012 and (b) examine potential correlations between socioeconomic status and infrastructural damage with negative emotional expressions across NYC census tracts over time. A total of 984,311 geo-referenced tweets with negative basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, shame) were collected and assigned to the census tracts within NYC boroughs between 8 October and 18 November 2012. Global and local univariate and bivariate Moran’s I statistics were used to analyze the data. We found local spatial clusters of all negative emotions over all disaster periods. Socioeconomic status and infrastructural damage were predominantly correlated with disgust, fear, and shame post-disaster. We identified spatial clusters of emotional reactions during and in the aftermath of a large-scale disaster that could help provide guidance about where immediate and long-term relief measures are needed the most, if transferred to similar events and on comparable data worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural disaster; post disaster mental health; digital epidemiology; spatial epidemiology; health geography; Twitter natural disaster; post disaster mental health; digital epidemiology; spatial epidemiology; health geography; Twitter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garske, S.I.; Elayan, S.; Sykora, M.; Edry, T.; Grabenhenrich, L.B.; Galea, S.; Lowe, S.R.; Gruebner, O. Space-Time Dependence of Emotions on Twitter after a Natural Disaster. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5292. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105292

AMA Style

Garske SI, Elayan S, Sykora M, Edry T, Grabenhenrich LB, Galea S, Lowe SR, Gruebner O. Space-Time Dependence of Emotions on Twitter after a Natural Disaster. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5292. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105292

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garske, Sonja I.; Elayan, Suzanne; Sykora, Martin; Edry, Tamar; Grabenhenrich, Linus B.; Galea, Sandro; Lowe, Sarah R.; Gruebner, Oliver. 2021. "Space-Time Dependence of Emotions on Twitter after a Natural Disaster" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 10: 5292. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105292

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