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Open AccessArticle

Fruit and Vegetable Intake and All-Cause Mortality in a Chinese Population: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

1
Department of Social Medicine, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY 11201, USA
4
Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Yuxuan Gu and Yansu He contributes equally to this manuscript.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010342
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
This study was to investigate the association of long-term fruit and vegetable (FV) intake with all-cause mortality. We utilized data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), a prospective cohort study conducted in China. The sample population included 19,542 adult respondents with complete mortality data up to 31 December 2011. Cumulative FV intake was assessed by 3 day 24 h dietary recalls. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality. Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health-related factors, and urban index. A total of 1409 deaths were observed during follow-up (median: 14 years). In the fully adjusted model, vegetable intake of the fourth quintile (327~408 g/day) had the greatest negative association with death compared to the lowest quintile (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.53–0.76). Fruit intake of the fifth quintile (more than 126 g/day) had the highest negative association (HR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15–0.40) and increasing general FV intake were also negatively associated with all-cause mortality which demonstrated the greatest negative association in the amount of fourth quintile (HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.49–0.70) compared to the lowest quintile. To conclude, greater FV intake is associated with a reduced risk of total mortality for Chinese adults. High intake of fruit has a stronger negative association with mortality than differences in intake of vegetables. Our findings support recommendations to increase the intake of FV to promote overall longevity. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit; vegetables; mortality; prospective studies; China fruit; vegetables; mortality; prospective studies; China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, Y.; He, Y.; Ali, S.H.; Harper, K.; Dong, H.; Gittelsohn, J. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and All-Cause Mortality in a Chinese Population: The China Health and Nutrition Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 342. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010342

AMA Style

Gu Y, He Y, Ali SH, Harper K, Dong H, Gittelsohn J. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and All-Cause Mortality in a Chinese Population: The China Health and Nutrition Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):342. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010342

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gu, Yuxuan; He, Yansu; Ali, Shahmir H.; Harper, Kaitlyn; Dong, Hengjin; Gittelsohn, Joel. 2021. "Fruit and Vegetable Intake and All-Cause Mortality in a Chinese Population: The China Health and Nutrition Survey" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 1: 342. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010342

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