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The Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak on the Psychological Flexibility and Behaviour of Cancelling Medical Appointments of Italian Patients with Pre-Existing Medical Condition: The “ImpACT-COVID-19 for Patients” Multi-Centre Observational Study

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Clinical Psychology Unit, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37024 Verona, Italy
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Department of Infectious—Tropical Diseases and Microbiology, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37024 Verona, Italy
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Oncology Department, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, 37024 Verona, Italy
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Clinical Research Unit, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37024 Verona, Italy
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Unit of Neuroepidemiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, 20145 Milan, Italy
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Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Neuroimmunology Unit, Clinical Neurology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, 20145 Milan, Italy
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School of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072 QLD, Australia
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Headache Center, Neurology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, 20145 Milan, Italy
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Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy
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Infectious Diseases Clinic, Policlinico San Martino Hospital-IRCCS, 16132 Genoa, Italy
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Infectious Diseases Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
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Service of Psycho Oncology, San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale di Crotone, 88900 Crotone, Italy
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General Hospital Bressanone, Azienda Sanitaria dell’Alto Adige, Bressanone, 39042 Bolzano, Italy
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General Hospital Bolzano Azienda Sanitaria dell’Alto Adige, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
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CFU-Italia ODV (Fybromyalgia Association), Castenaso, 40085 Bologna, Italy
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Department of Oncoplastic Surgery of Breast Unit. V. Cervello Hospital, 90100 Palermo, Italy
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Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.) Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, 95123 Catania, Italy
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Cardiac Surgery Unit, Salus Hospital GVM Care & Research, 42123 Regio Emilia, Italy
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Clinical Oncology Unit, S.S. Annunziata Hospital, 66100 Chieti, Italy
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Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (DIBIC) Luigi Sacco, University of Milan, 20157 Milan, Italy
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Neurological Unit, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37024 Verona, Italy
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Advanced Radiation Oncology Department, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37024 Verona, Italy
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University of Brescia, 25121 Brescia, Italy
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Rheumatology Unit, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37024 Verona, Italy
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Cardiology Deparment, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37024 Verona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010340
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 24 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
Psychological distress imposed by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak particularly affects patients with pre-existing medical conditions, and the progression of their diseases. Patients who fail to keep scheduled medical appointments experience a negative impact on care. The aim of this study is to investigate the psychosocial factors contributing to the cancellation of medical appointments during the pandemic by patients with pre-existing health conditions. Data were collected in eleven Italian hospitals during the last week of lockdown, and one month later. In order to assess the emotional impact of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and the subject’s degree of psychological flexibility, we developed an ad hoc questionnaire (ImpACT), referring to the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) model. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ) were also used. Pervasive dysfunctional use of experiential avoidance behaviours (used with the function to avoid thought, emotions, sensations), feelings of loneliness and high post-traumatic stress scores were found to correlate with the fear of COVID-19, increasing the likelihood of cancelling medical appointments. Responding promptly to the information and psychological needs of patients who cancel medical appointments can have positive effects in terms of psychological and physical health. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; virus; pandemic; lockdown; psychological flexibility; depression; anxiety; stress; psychological impact; cancelling medical appointments COVID-19; virus; pandemic; lockdown; psychological flexibility; depression; anxiety; stress; psychological impact; cancelling medical appointments
MDPI and ACS Style

Deledda, G.; Riccardi, N.; Gori, S.; Poli, S.; Giansante, M.; Geccherle, E.; Mazzi, C.; Silva, R.; Desantis, N.; Giovannetti, A.M.; Solari, A.; Confalonieri, P.; Grazzi, L.; Sarcletti, E.; Biffa, G.; Biagio, A.D.; Sestito, C.; Keim, R.; Gangi Hermis, A.M.R.D.; Mazzoldi, M.; Failo, A.; Scaglione, A.; Faldetta, N.; Dorangricchia, P.; Moschetto, M.; Soto Parra, H.J.; Faietti, J.; Profio, A.D.; Rusconi, S.; Giacomelli, A.; Marchioretto, F.; Alongi, F.; Marchetta, A.; Molon, G.; Bisoffi, Z.; Angheben, A. The Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak on the Psychological Flexibility and Behaviour of Cancelling Medical Appointments of Italian Patients with Pre-Existing Medical Condition: The “ImpACT-COVID-19 for Patients” Multi-Centre Observational Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 340. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010340

AMA Style

Deledda G, Riccardi N, Gori S, Poli S, Giansante M, Geccherle E, Mazzi C, Silva R, Desantis N, Giovannetti AM, Solari A, Confalonieri P, Grazzi L, Sarcletti E, Biffa G, Biagio AD, Sestito C, Keim R, Gangi Hermis AMRD, Mazzoldi M, Failo A, Scaglione A, Faldetta N, Dorangricchia P, Moschetto M, Soto Parra HJ, Faietti J, Profio AD, Rusconi S, Giacomelli A, Marchioretto F, Alongi F, Marchetta A, Molon G, Bisoffi Z, Angheben A. The Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak on the Psychological Flexibility and Behaviour of Cancelling Medical Appointments of Italian Patients with Pre-Existing Medical Condition: The “ImpACT-COVID-19 for Patients” Multi-Centre Observational Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):340. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010340

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deledda, Giuseppe; Riccardi, Niccolò; Gori, Stefania; Poli, Sara; Giansante, Matteo; Geccherle, Eleonora; Mazzi, Cristina; Silva, Ronaldo; Desantis, Nicoletta; Giovannetti, Ambra M.; Solari, Alessandra; Confalonieri, Paolo; Grazzi, Licia; Sarcletti, Elena; Biffa, Gabriella; Biagio, Antonio D.; Sestito, Carlo; Keim, Roland; Gangi Hermis, Alida M.R.D.; Mazzoldi, Mariantonietta; Failo, Alessandro; Scaglione, Anna; Faldetta, Naida; Dorangricchia, Patrizia; Moschetto, Maria; Soto Parra, Hector J.; Faietti, Jennifer; Profio, Anna D.; Rusconi, Stefano; Giacomelli, Andrea; Marchioretto, Fabio; Alongi, Filippo; Marchetta, Antonio; Molon, Giulio; Bisoffi, Zeno; Angheben, Andrea. 2021. "The Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak on the Psychological Flexibility and Behaviour of Cancelling Medical Appointments of Italian Patients with Pre-Existing Medical Condition: The “ImpACT-COVID-19 for Patients” Multi-Centre Observational Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 1: 340. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010340

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