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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Microorganisms Associated with Lower Reproductive Tract Infections in Women from Southern Poland—Retrospective Laboratory-Based Study

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-008 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Microbiology, Analytical and Microbiological Laboratory of KORLAB NZOZ, 41-700 Ruda Śląska, Poland
3
Department of Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Silesia, 40-055 Katowice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010335
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
Objective: Female infections affecting the genital tract include sexually transmitted diseases, endogenous infections such as vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis (BV) or aerobic vaginitis (AV) and healthcare-associated infections. The aim of the study was to analyze the etiological factors of the vaginal dysbacteriosis, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the dominant bacterial and fungal infections in different age groups of outpatient women from the Silesian Region. Materials and methods: A retrospective laboratory-based multi-center study encompassed 4994 women of different ages in Silesian Voivodeship, in the south of Poland; patients who had vaginal swabs collected as per physicians’ orders during the period from 1 January 2017 until 30 June 2018 were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were: non-hospitalized female, aged ≤80, with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis or bacterial vaginosis and clinical sings of infections. Results: Gram-positive cocci were the ones most often isolated: Enterococcus faecalis (29.2%) and Streptoccoccus agalactiae (13.1%), followed by bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae group, including Escherichia coli (26.3%). The presence of Streptococcus agalactiae was confirmed in 13.1%, slightly more often in the 45–80 age group, and Gardnerella vaginalis in 6.4%, most often in women aged 15–24. The prevalence of yeast-like infections was 24.3%, Candida albicans accounted for 78.3%, whereas among C. non-albicans spp.—C. glabrata dominated (14.9%) followed by C. parapsilosis (3.8%). The highest resistance was observed only in Streptococcus agalactiae as the MLSB mechanism (Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B) was identified in 38.6% of strains. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 24.3%, the highest in women aged 15–44. Conclusions: Drug resistance in studied vulvovaginitis was associated only with Streptococcus agalactiae. A high proportion of yeast-like aetiology was found, probably associated with recurrent infections. In the analyzed cases only the Amsel criteria and culture methods were used for diagnosis without preparations and microbiological Nugent criteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaginal infections; lower genital tract; Escherichia coli; Candida spp. vaginal infections; lower genital tract; Escherichia coli; Candida spp.
MDPI and ACS Style

Wójkowska-Mach, J.; Pomorska-Wesołowska, M.; Romanik, M.; Romaniszyn, D. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Microorganisms Associated with Lower Reproductive Tract Infections in Women from Southern Poland—Retrospective Laboratory-Based Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010335

AMA Style

Wójkowska-Mach J, Pomorska-Wesołowska M, Romanik M, Romaniszyn D. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Microorganisms Associated with Lower Reproductive Tract Infections in Women from Southern Poland—Retrospective Laboratory-Based Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):335. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010335

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Pomorska-Wesołowska, Monika; Romanik, Małgorzata; Romaniszyn, Dorota. 2021. "Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Microorganisms Associated with Lower Reproductive Tract Infections in Women from Southern Poland—Retrospective Laboratory-Based Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 1: 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010335

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