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Article

Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations for Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Korean Children: A Time-Series Study in Seven Metropolitan Cities

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon 301-747, Korea
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea
4
Environmental Health Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea
5
Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 30147, Korea
6
Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea
7
Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, 1599 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contribute equally as first author.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010144
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 28 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Climate Change and Respiratory Health)
Although several studies have evaluated the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children, their results were inconsistent Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 and ALRI hospitalizations in children (0–5 years) living in seven metropolitan cities of Korea. The ALRI hospitalization data of children living in seven metropolitan cities of Korea from 2008 to 2016 was acquired from a customized database constructed based on National Health Insurance data. The time-series data in a generalized additive model were used to evaluate the relationship between ALRI hospitalization and 7-day moving average PM2.5 exposure after adjusting for apparent temperature, day of the week, and time trends. We performed a meta-analysis using a two-stage design method. The estimates for each city were pooled to generate an average estimate of the associations. The average PM2.5 concentration in 7 metropolitan cities was 29.0 μg/m3 and a total of 713,588 ALRI hospitalizations were observed during the 9-year study period. A strong linear association was observed between PM2.5 and ALRI hospitalization. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 7-day moving average of PM2.5 was associated with a 1.20% (95% CI: 0.71, 1.71) increase in ALRI hospitalization. While we found similar estimates in a stratified analysis by sex, we observed stronger estimates of the association in the warm season (1.71%, 95% CI: 0.94, 2.48) compared to the cold season (0.31%, 95% CI: −0.51, 1.13). In the two-pollutant models, the PM2.5 effect adjusted by SO2 was attenuated more than in the single pollutant model. Our results suggest a positive association between PM2.5 exposure and ALRI hospitalizations in Korean children, particularly in the warm season. The children need to refrain from going out on days when PM2.5 is high. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine particulate matter; acute lower respiratory infection; time-series; children fine particulate matter; acute lower respiratory infection; time-series; children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oh, J.; Han, C.; Lee, D.-W.; Jang, Y.; Choi, Y.-J.; Bae, H.J.; Kim, S.; Ha, E.; Hong, Y.-C.; Lim, Y.-H. Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations for Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Korean Children: A Time-Series Study in Seven Metropolitan Cities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010144

AMA Style

Oh J, Han C, Lee D-W, Jang Y, Choi Y-J, Bae HJ, Kim S, Ha E, Hong Y-C, Lim Y-H. Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations for Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Korean Children: A Time-Series Study in Seven Metropolitan Cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):144. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010144

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oh, Jongmin, Changwoo Han, Dong-Wook Lee, Yoonyoung Jang, Yoon-Jung Choi, Hyun J. Bae, Soontae Kim, Eunhee Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, and Youn-Hee Lim. 2021. "Short-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations for Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Korean Children: A Time-Series Study in Seven Metropolitan Cities" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 1: 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010144

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