Next Article in Journal
Impact of Climate Variability and Abundance of Mosquitoes on Dengue Transmission in Central Vietnam
Next Article in Special Issue
Meeting the Global NCD Target of at Least 10% Relative Reduction in the Harmful Use of Alcohol: Is the WHO European Region on Track?
Previous Article in Journal
The Prevalence and Context of Alcohol Use, Problem Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harm among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda
Previous Article in Special Issue
How Attitudes toward Alcohol Policies Differ across European Countries: Evidence from the Standardized European Alcohol Survey (SEAS)
Open AccessArticle

Is There a Need for Alcohol Policy to Mitigate Metal Contamination in Unrecorded Fruit Spirits?

Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072452
Received: 9 March 2020 / Revised: 25 March 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Control Policy and Health in Europe)
Unrecorded alcohol comprises all types of alcohol that is not registered in the jurisdiction where it is consumed. In some countries in Central and Eastern Europe as well as the Balkans, the majority of unrecorded alcohol consumption may derive from the home production of fruit spirits. Some studies found a high prevalence of lead and cadmium in such spirits. This article provides a quantitative comparative risk assessment using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology for lead and cadmium, compared to ethanol, for unrecorded fruit spirits. For average concentration levels, the lowest MOE (0.8) was calculated for ethanol (alcohol itself). For lead, the MOE was 13 for moderate daily drinking and 0.9 for the worst-case scenario. For cadmium, the MOE was 1982 for moderate daily drinking and 113 for the worst-case scenario. The results of this study are consistent with previous comparative risk assessments stating that ethanol itself comprises by far the highest risk of all compounds in alcoholic beverages. Regarding metal contaminants, the risk of cadmium appears negligible; however, lead may pose an additional health risk in heavy drinking circumstances. Strategies to avoid metal contamination in the artisanal home production of spirits need to be developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: unrecorded alcohol; home-produced fruit spirits; metals; lead; cadmium; ethanol; health risk; risk assessment; margin of exposure unrecorded alcohol; home-produced fruit spirits; metals; lead; cadmium; ethanol; health risk; risk assessment; margin of exposure
MDPI and ACS Style

Lachenmeier, D.W. Is There a Need for Alcohol Policy to Mitigate Metal Contamination in Unrecorded Fruit Spirits? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2452.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop