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Open AccessArticle

Respiratory Health in a Community Living in Close Proximity to Gold Mine Waste Dumps, Johannesburg, South Africa

1
Occupational Medicine Section, National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2001, Gauteng Province, South Africa
2
School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2193, Gauteng Province, South Africa
3
Epidemiology and Surveillance Section, National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2001, Gauteng Province, South Africa
4
Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2028, Gauteng Province, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072240 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 11 March 2020 / Accepted: 12 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
The effects on respiratory health in populations living close to silica-rich gold mine dumps are unknown. This pilot study related respiratory health and exposure to mine dump dust using two measures of exposure: exposure group, based on distance lived from the mine dump—high (n = 93) (home <500 m from a mine dump), moderate (n = 133) (500–1.5 km), and low (n = 84) (>15 km, control group); and cumulative exposure index (CEI) derived from exposure group and number of years of residence in each exposure group. Participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms and had chest X-rays and spirometry. We adjusted for key respiratory confounders. No subject had radiological features of silicosis. The high relative to low exposure group had significantly elevated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for upper respiratory symptoms (aOR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.28–5.97), chest wheezing (aOR: 3.78; 95% CI: 1.60–8.96), and spirometry-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (aOR: 8.17; 95%CI: 1.01–65.85). These findings were similar for the high relative to medium exposure group, but no significant associations were found for the medium versus low exposure group. Chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis risks did not differ significantly among groups. CEI and exposure group produced similar results. In conclusion, residents residing <500 m from mine dumps had elevated adverse respiratory health effects.
Keywords: gold mine waste dump dust; chronic respiratory conditions; cumulative exposure index; crystalline silica dust gold mine waste dump dust; chronic respiratory conditions; cumulative exposure index; crystalline silica dust
MDPI and ACS Style

Iyaloo, S.; Kootbodien, T.; Naicker, N.; Kgalamono, S.; Wilson, K.S.; Rees, D. Respiratory Health in a Community Living in Close Proximity to Gold Mine Waste Dumps, Johannesburg, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2240.

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