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Open AccessArticle

Development and Validation of the Overall Foot Pain Questionnaire in Motorcycle Riders

1
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922 Alcorcón, Spain
2
Facultad de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Escola Superior de Saúde da Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa, 1300-125 Lisboa, Portugal
4
Research, Health and Podiatry Group, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Nursing and Podiatry, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072233 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Podiatry and Health)
Objectives: Our primary aim was to develop a transcultural adaptation of a cycling questionnaire using the Borg CR-10 scale as a tool to describe the discomfort among motorcyclists during the riding process in two trial sessions. Design: A transcultural adaptation and descriptive cross-sectional study. Settings: Jarama motorcycling circuit (Madrid, Spain). Participants: The participants were riders recorded across in a final motorcycling race. Interventions: The study design is based in two tools, the adapted Motorcyclist Questionnaire (MQ-21) with 21 items and Borg CR10 Scale® was used to determine discomfort level during motorcycling performance. The translation procedure, reliability, and reproducibility were performed. Results: All items showed an almost perfect intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (ICC = 0.909–1.00), except for item 9 (ICC = 0.881). Almost perfect internal consistency was shown for the total score (Cronbach α = 0.899). No systematic differences existed among test and retest in all items (p > 0.05) according to Bland–Altman plots. Respondents experienced slight discomfort on their body parts during the test-retest 1 h riding process. Foot discomfort was scored as 1.20, being the eighth of the 12 studied body parts. Conclusions: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the MQ-21 questionnaire were excellent and this questionnaire may be recommended to be used in motorcycling sports and clinical settings to evaluate the discomfort. View Full-Text
Keywords: foot diseases; reproducibility of results; sports; validation studies as topic foot diseases; reproducibility of results; sports; validation studies as topic
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Casado-Hernández, I.; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, R.; Losa-Iglesias, M.E.; Soriano-Medrano, A.; Morales-Ponce, Á.; Martiniano, J.; López-López, D.; Calvo-Lobo, C. Development and Validation of the Overall Foot Pain Questionnaire in Motorcycle Riders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2233.

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