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Open AccessArticle

Development and Validation of the Overall Foot Pain Questionnaire in Motorcycle Riders

Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922 Alcorcón, Spain
Facultad de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Escola Superior de Saúde da Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa, 1300-125 Lisboa, Portugal
Research, Health and Podiatry Group, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Nursing and Podiatry, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2233; (registering DOI)
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Podiatry and Health)
Objectives: Our primary aim was to develop a transcultural adaptation of a cycling questionnaire using the Borg CR-10 scale as a tool to describe the discomfort among motorcyclists during the riding process in two trial sessions. Design: A transcultural adaptation and descriptive cross-sectional study. Settings: Jarama motorcycling circuit (Madrid, Spain). Participants: The participants were riders recorded across in a final motorcycling race. Interventions: The study design is based in two tools, the adapted Motorcyclist Questionnaire (MQ-21) with 21 items and Borg CR10 Scale® was used to determine discomfort level during motorcycling performance. The translation procedure, reliability, and reproducibility were performed. Results: All items showed an almost perfect intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (ICC = 0.909–1.00), except for item 9 (ICC = 0.881). Almost perfect internal consistency was shown for the total score (Cronbach α = 0.899). No systematic differences existed among test and retest in all items (p > 0.05) according to Bland–Altman plots. Respondents experienced slight discomfort on their body parts during the test-retest 1 h riding process. Foot discomfort was scored as 1.20, being the eighth of the 12 studied body parts. Conclusions: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the MQ-21 questionnaire were excellent and this questionnaire may be recommended to be used in motorcycling sports and clinical settings to evaluate the discomfort. View Full-Text
Keywords: foot diseases; reproducibility of results; sports; validation studies as topic foot diseases; reproducibility of results; sports; validation studies as topic
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Casado-Hernández, I.; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, R.; Losa-Iglesias, M.E.; Soriano-Medrano, A.; Morales-Ponce, Á.; Martiniano, J.; López-López, D.; Calvo-Lobo, C. Development and Validation of the Overall Foot Pain Questionnaire in Motorcycle Riders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2233.

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