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Open AccessArticle

Health Risk Assessment and Source Apportionment of Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Selenium, and Manganese in Japanese Women: An Adjunct Study to the Japan Environment and Children’s Study

1
Center for Health and Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
2
Department of Development and Environmental Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072231 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 March 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trace Element Exposure and Human Health)
Toxic element pollution is a serious global health concern that has been attracting considerable research. In this study, we elucidated the major routes of exposure to three toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, and lead) and two essential elements (manganese and selenium) through diet, soil, house dust, and indoor air and assessed the potential health risks from these elements on women from the coastal area of Miyagi prefecture, Japan. Twenty-four-hour duplicate diet, house dust, soil, and indoor air samples were collected from 37 participants. Cd, Pb, Mn, and Se concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and Hg concentrations using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. We found that soil and house dust were the primary reservoirs of these elements. Diet contributed most strongly to the daily intake of these elements, with mean values of 0.72, 0.25, 0.054, 47, and 0.94 μg/kg/day for Hg, Cd, Pb, Mn, and Se, respectively. The mean hazard quotient of Hg was 1.53, indicating a high potential health risk from Hg exposure in daily lives. The intakes of other elements were below the tolerable limits. Future studies with a larger sample size are warranted to confirm our findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: mercury; cadmium; lead; manganese; selenium; exposure assessment; health risk mercury; cadmium; lead; manganese; selenium; exposure assessment; health risk
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Ma, C.; Iwai-Shimada, M.; Tatsuta, N.; Nakai, K.; Isobe, T.; Takagi, M.; Nishihama, Y.; Nakayama, S.F. Health Risk Assessment and Source Apportionment of Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Selenium, and Manganese in Japanese Women: An Adjunct Study to the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2231.

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