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Open AccessArticle

Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Calcification in Patients with Ischemic Stroke Is a Predictor of Recurrent Stroke, Vascular Disease, and Death: A Case-Control Study

1
Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
3
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Paracelsus Medical University, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
4
Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Center, Paracelsus Medical University, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
5
Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München, Germany
6
Department of Neurology, Landesklinikum Mistelbach-Gänserndorf, 2130 Mistelbach, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062013
Received: 22 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease)
Intracranial artery calcification can be detected on nonenhanced brain computer tomography (NECT) and is a predictor of early vascular events. Here, we assessed the impact of vertebrobasilar artery calcification (VBC) on the long-term risk for recurrent stroke and vascular events. We performed a case-control trial of all consecutive stroke patients admitted to the University Hospital of Maribor, Slovenia over a period of 14 months. VBC was defined as presence of a hyperdense area within vertebrobasilar arteries that exceeds > 90 Hounsfield units as seen on NECT. Clinical follow-up information was obtained from the hospital documentation system and mortality registry of the district and included recurrent stroke, subsequent vascular events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, peripheral arterial occlusive disease), and death. We followed a total of 448 patients for a median of 1505 days (interquartile range, IQR 188-2479). Evidence for VBC was present in 243 (54.2%) patients. Median age was 76 years, recurrent stroke occurred in 33 (7.4%), any vascular events in 71 (15.8%), and death in 276 (61.6%). VBC was associated with a higher risk of recurrent stroke (hazard ratio, HR 3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.35–7.20)) and vascular events (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.21–3.47). Advanced age, male gender, and ischemic stroke involving the entire anterior circulation raised the likelihood for death. We conclude that the presence of VBC in patients with ischemic stroke is a short- and long-term prognostic factor for stroke recurrence and subsequent manifestation of acute vascular disease. Further understanding of the pathophysiology of VBC is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: intracerebral artery calcification; atherosclerosis; ischemic stroke; vascular disease; mortality; prognosis intracerebral artery calcification; atherosclerosis; ischemic stroke; vascular disease; mortality; prognosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Magdič, J.; Cmor, N.; Kaube, M.; Hojs Fabjan, T.; Hauer, L.; Sellner, J.; Pikija, S. Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Calcification in Patients with Ischemic Stroke Is a Predictor of Recurrent Stroke, Vascular Disease, and Death: A Case-Control Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2013. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062013

AMA Style

Magdič J, Cmor N, Kaube M, Hojs Fabjan T, Hauer L, Sellner J, Pikija S. Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Calcification in Patients with Ischemic Stroke Is a Predictor of Recurrent Stroke, Vascular Disease, and Death: A Case-Control Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):2013. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Magdič, Jožef; Cmor, Nino; Kaube, Matevž; Hojs Fabjan, Tanja; Hauer, Larissa; Sellner, Johann; Pikija, Slaven. 2020. "Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Calcification in Patients with Ischemic Stroke Is a Predictor of Recurrent Stroke, Vascular Disease, and Death: A Case-Control Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 6: 2013. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062013

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