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Open AccessArticle

Interval Hypoxic Training Enhances Athletic Performance and Does Not Adversely Affect Immune Function in Middle- and Long-Distance Runners

1
Physical Activity and Performance Institute, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Department of Sports Medicine and Science, Graduate School, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061934
Received: 12 February 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 15 March 2020 / Published: 16 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease)
This study evaluated the effects of intermittent interval training in hypoxic conditions for six weeks compared with normoxic conditions, on hemodynamic function, autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, immune function, and athletic performance in middle- and long-distance runners. Twenty athletes were divided into normoxic training (normoxic training group (NTG); n = 10; residing and training at sea level) and hypoxic training (hypoxic training group (HTG); n = 10; residing at sea level but training in 526-mmHg hypobaric hypoxia) groups. All dependent variables were measured before, and after, training. The training frequency was 90 min, 3 d per week for six weeks. Body composition showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, the HTG showed more significantly improved athletic performance (e.g., maximal oxygen uptake). The hemodynamic function (e.g., oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse, and cardiac output) during submaximal exercise and ANS function (e.g., standard deviation and root mean square of successive differences, high frequency, and low/high frequency) improved more in the HTG. Immune function parameters were stable within the normal range before and after training in both groups. Therefore, hypoxic training was more effective in enhancing athletic performance, and improving hemodynamic and ANS function; further, it did not adversely affect immune function in competitive runners. View Full-Text
Keywords: interval hypoxic training; hemodynamic function; autonomic nervous system balance; exercise performance; immune function; competitive middle- and long-distance runners interval hypoxic training; hemodynamic function; autonomic nervous system balance; exercise performance; immune function; competitive middle- and long-distance runners
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, W.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Park, H.-Y. Interval Hypoxic Training Enhances Athletic Performance and Does Not Adversely Affect Immune Function in Middle- and Long-Distance Runners. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061934

AMA Style

Jung W-S, Kim S-W, Park H-Y. Interval Hypoxic Training Enhances Athletic Performance and Does Not Adversely Affect Immune Function in Middle- and Long-Distance Runners. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):1934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061934

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jung, Won-Sang; Kim, Sung-Woo; Park, Hun-Young. 2020. "Interval Hypoxic Training Enhances Athletic Performance and Does Not Adversely Affect Immune Function in Middle- and Long-Distance Runners" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 6: 1934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061934

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