Next Article in Journal
Solar Powered Microplasma-Generated Ozone: Assessment of a Novel Point-of-Use Drinking Water Treatment Method
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of School Leaders’ Health Literacy for the Implementation of Health Promoting Schools
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chemical Pollution in Healing Spaces: The Decalogue of the Best Practices for Adequate Indoor Air Quality in Inpatient Rooms
Open AccessReview

Methods of Disinfecting Stethoscopes: Systematic Review

1
Post Graduate School of Public Health, University of Siena, 53100 Siena; Italy
2
Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
3
General management, LHA Sardinia, 07100 Sassari, Italy
4
Medical and General Management, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, 12100 Cuneo, Italy
5
Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061856
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 9 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hospital Outdoor and Indoor Environmental Impact: Control Measures)
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of various disinfection methods available for stethoscopes. In March 2019, we performed a search in PubMed and Scopus using the search terms: “reducing stethoscopes contamination” and “disinfection stethoscopes”; the Mesh terms used in PubMed were “Decontamination/methods” or “Disinfection/methods” and “Stethoscopes/microbiology”. Selection criteria were: English language; at least one disinfection method tested. A total of 253 publications were screened. After title, abstract, and full-text analysis, 17 papers were included in the systematic review. Ethanol at 90%, Ethanol-Based Hands Sanitizer (EBHS), triclosan, chlorhexidine, isopropyl alcohol, 66% ethyl alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, and benzalkonium chloride have been proven to lower the presence of bacteria on stethoscopes’ surfaces. In addition, alcohol wipes show effective results. A wearable device emitting ultraviolet C by Light-Emitting Diode (LED) resulted efficacious against common microorganisms involved in Healthcare Associated Infections. The cover impregnated with silver ions seemed to be associated with significantly higher colony counts. Instead, copper stethoscopes surface reduced bacterial load. The disinfection of stethoscopes appears to be essential. There are many valid methods available; the choice depends on various factors, such as the cost, availability, and practicality. View Full-Text
Keywords: stethoscope; healthcare-associated infections; copper; chlorhexidine; UV-LED; triclosan; isopropyl alcohol; benzalkonium; 90% ethanol; sodium hypochlorite stethoscope; healthcare-associated infections; copper; chlorhexidine; UV-LED; triclosan; isopropyl alcohol; benzalkonium; 90% ethanol; sodium hypochlorite
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Napolitani, M.; Bezzini, D.; Moirano, F.; Bedogni, C.; Messina, G. Methods of Disinfecting Stethoscopes: Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1856.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop