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Open AccessArticle

Decreased Risk of Renal Calculi in Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

by Chien-Yu Lin 1,2,†, Jui-Ming Liu 3,4,5,†, Chun-Te Wu 6, Ren-Jun Hsu 5,7,8,* and Wen-Lin Hsu 9,*
1
Department of Pediatrics, Hsinchu MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu City 30071, Taiwan
2
Department of Medicine, MacKay Medical College, New Taipei City 25160, Taiwan
3
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taoyuan General Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taoyuan 330, Taiwan
4
Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
5
Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
6
Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung 204, Taiwan
7
Cancer Research Center, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan
8
College of medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien970, Taiwan
9
Department of Radiation Oncology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051762
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 7 March 2020 / Published: 9 March 2020
Renal calculi are common, with male predilection and androgen exposure potentially increasing the risk of renal calculi. Systemic effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have been observed but the influence of ADT on renal calculi in prostate cancer (PCa) patients is not fully understood. We conducted this population-based study to evaluate the impact of ADT on the subsequent risk of renal calculi. We used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to analyze the incidences of renal calculi in ADT patients and non-ADT patients from 2001 to 2013. In total, 3309 patients with PCa were selected. After matching with 1:1 propensity-score analysis, 758 ADT patients with 758 matched non-ADT controls were enrolled in the final analysis. Demographic characteristics were analyzed and Cox regression analysis for calculating the hazard ratios (HR) was performed for the subsequent risk of renal calculi. Finally, 186 (186/1516, 12.3%) patients with diagnosed renal calculi were detected. ADT patients had a lower risk of subsequent renal calculi with an adjusted HR of 0.38 (7% vs. 17.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28–0.53; p < 0.001) in comparison with the non-ADT group. The Kaplan–Meier curve showed significant differences of cumulative incidences of renal calculi. In conclusion, ADT patients had approximately one-third lower risk of subsequent renal calculi. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical significance. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; urolithiasis; renal calculi; androgen deprivation therapy; National Health Insurance Research Database prostate cancer; urolithiasis; renal calculi; androgen deprivation therapy; National Health Insurance Research Database
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.-Y.; Liu, J.-M.; Wu, C.-T.; Hsu, R.-J.; Hsu, W.-L. Decreased Risk of Renal Calculi in Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1762.

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