Next Article in Journal
Enable, Reconnect and Augment: A New ERA of Virtual Nature Research and Application
Next Article in Special Issue
Difficulties Limiting Access to Sports and Recreational Facilities in the City in the Perceptions of Service Users. Sports and Recreational Infrastructure Management Policy—Poznan Case Study
Previous Article in Journal
Response of Different Treatment Protocols to Treat Chronic Non-Bacterial Osteomyelitis (CNO) of the Mandible in Adult Patients: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reliability of 30-s Chair Stand Test with and without Cognitive Task in People with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Open AccessArticle

Sports Courage in Malaysian Silat Athletes: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Language Version

1
Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
Community and Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Sabah, Malaysia
3
Buca Educational Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, 35220 Izmir, Turkey
4
Exercise and Sports Science Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
5
Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051736
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 3 March 2020 / Published: 6 March 2020
Sports courage is one of the most important attributes to help competitive athletes overcome anxiety, nervousness, and other psychological obstacles, but this field of study is still being overlooked by most athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study is to validate the Malay language version of the Sports Courage Scale (SCS-M) for Silat athletes using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data were collected during 9th UPSI International Pencak Silat Championship in Malaysia. A total of 258 competitors (male = 66.7%, female = 33.3%), with a mean age of 18 years (SD = 2.6), volunteered to participate in this study. The original SCS with 50 items underwent forward and backward translations into the Malay language and was pre-tested with ten martial arts athletes. Then, Silat athletes were asked to complete the translated SCS-M questionnaire. There were five factors in the SCS-M (i.e., mastery, determination, assertiveness, venturesome, and self-sacrificial behaviour). The first hypothesised model with 50 items did not result in a good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.93, NFI = 0.87, NNFI = 0.93, RMR = 0.14, SRMR = 0.09). A total of 17 problematic items were identified and were removed iteratively. The final measurement model with 33 items fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.94, NFI = 0.89, NNFI = 0.94, RMR = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07). The reliability of each subscale based on Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.76. The convergent and discriminant validities were achieved for the final measurement model. The revised version of SCS-M with 33 items was considered valid and reliable for measuring the sports courage in Silat athletes in Malaysia. View Full-Text
Keywords: sports courage; Silat athletes; confirmatory factor analysis; Malay language sports courage; Silat athletes; confirmatory factor analysis; Malay language
MDPI and ACS Style

Hidrus, A.B.; Kueh, Y.C.; Arifin, W.N.; Konter, E.; Kuan, G. Sports Courage in Malaysian Silat Athletes: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Language Version. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1736. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051736

AMA Style

Hidrus AB, Kueh YC, Arifin WN, Konter E, Kuan G. Sports Courage in Malaysian Silat Athletes: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Language Version. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(5):1736. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051736

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hidrus, Aizuddin B.; Kueh, Yee C.; Arifin, Wan N.; Konter, Erkut; Kuan, Garry. 2020. "Sports Courage in Malaysian Silat Athletes: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Language Version" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 5: 1736. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051736

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop